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Paragon KM36T Knife-Making Furnace With A Sentry Xpress Controller. Paragon KM24T XL Double Barrel Knife-Making Kiln With A Sentry Programmer. Paragon KM18T Pro Knife-Making Oven With A Sentinel Touch Screen Programmer.
Paragon Xpress KM14T Knife-Making And Heat-Treating Kiln With A Sentry Xpress Programmer.
Paragon KM9T Double Barrel XL Knife-Making Furnace With A Sentry Programmer.
Paragon KM18T Double Barrel XL Knife-Making Oven With A Sentry Controller.
Paragon Xpress KM24T Knife-Making And Heat-Treating Kiln With A Sentry Xpress Programmer.
Paragon KM24T XL Double Barrel Knife-Making Furnace With A Sentry Programmer.
Paragon Xpress KM36T Knife-Making Furnace With A Sentry Xpress Controller.
Paragon KM45T Knife-Making And Heat-Treating Oven With A Sentry Programmer.
Paragon KM45T Side Door Knife-Making And Heat-Treating Oven With A Sentry Programmer.
Paragon KM18T Pro 3-zone Knife-Making Kiln With A Sentinel SmartTouch Controller.
Paragon KM36T Pro 3-zone Knife-Making Kiln With A Sentinel SmartTouch Programmer.

Paragon KM Kilns For Making Knives, Blades, Cutters, Dies, Tools, Model Parts, And Gun Components, Annealing, Heat-Treating Metals, And General Glass Work.

Paragon KM kilns are generally used for making knives, and annealing, hardening, heat-treating, and tempering blades, cutters, dies, tools, engineering components, and gun parts, although they have other applications. They're 1290°C kilns with digital programmers, in Paragon black or customised berry, blue, jade, navy, pink, purple, or turquoise. Learn about Paragon KM furnaces on this page.

There are five regular versions: the KM14T, KM18T, KM24T, KM36T, and KM45T, the number being the approximate interior depth in inches. T means tilted front.

There are three XL versions: the KM9T XL, KM18T XL, and KM24T XL. The XL versions are twice as wide as the regular versions and have Sentry 12-key programmers. In the US, Paragon calls them double-barrel.

There are three 5-star versions: the KM18T Pro, KM24T Pro, and KM36T Pro with stainless-steel spring-assisted guillotine doors, high-power fast-heat ceramic-fibre interiors, 3-zone temperature control, and Sentinel SmartTouch programmers.


Prices here are transparent: they're for UK-EU voltage, CE marked, CL CSA approved, and TUV tested kilns, and include comprehensive instructions, a heat-treating guide, UK VAT, and free continuing support from a top-tier international distributor. So you can start work straight away.

For prices, trading terms, and secure on-line shopping, use the shop link below the menu bar near the top-right of any page. The order form is after the price list, near the bottom.

Kilns that weigh over 30kg can't be delivered by a regular parcel-service van: they need a lorry with a tail-lift and a hydraulic pallet trolley. GB-mainland delivery charges are on the shop page. For other locations, call or mail

Paragon KM9T Double Barrel Knife-Making And Heat-Treating Kiln With A Sentry Programmer. Paragon KM9T Double Barrel Knife-Making And Heat-Treating Oven With A Sentry Programmer.
Paragon KM9T XL Knife-Making Kiln. Paragon KM9T XL Knife-Making Kiln.
Paragon KM14T Knife-Making And Heat-Treating Kiln With A Sentry Xpress Programmer. Paragon KM14T Knife-Making And Heat-Treating Furnace With A Sentry Xpress Programmer.
Paragon KM14T Knife-Making And Heat-Treating Kiln. Paragon KM14T Knife-Making And Heat-Treating Kiln.
Paragon KM18T Knife-Making Kiln With A Sentry Xpress Programmer. Paragon KM18T Double Barrel XL Knife-Making Oven With A Sentry Programmer.
Paragon KM18T Knife-Making And Heat-Treating Oven. Paragon KM18T XL Knife-Making And Heat-Treating Oven.
Paragon KM24T Knife-Making Kiln With A Sentry Xpress Programmer. Paragon KM24T Double Barrel XL Knife-Making Oven With A Sentry Programmer.
Paragon KM24T Knife-Making And Heat-Treating Kiln. Paragon KM24T XL Knife-Making And Heat-Treating Kiln.
Paragon KM36T Knife-Making Furnace With A Sentry Xpress Programmer.                Paragon KM45T Knife-Making And Heat-Treating Oven With A Sentry Xpress Programmer.
Paragon KM36T Knife-Making And Heat-Treating Furnace. Paragon KM45T Knife-Making And Heat-Treating Furnace.
Paragon KM45T Knife-Making Oven With A Side Door With A Sentry Programmer. Paragon KM18T Pro 3-Zone Knife-Making Kiln With A Guillotine Door And A Sentry Programmer.
Paragon KM45T Knife-Making And Heat-Treating Kiln: Side Door. Paragon KM18T Pro 3-Zone Knife-Making Kiln: Guillotine Door.
Paragon KM36T Pro 3-Zone Knife-Making Oven With A Guillotine Door And A Sentry Programmer. Orton-Paragon Sentry Xpress Programmer.
Paragon KM36T Pro 3-Zone Knife-Making Kiln: Guillotine Door. Paragon Sentry Xpress Programmer.
Orton-Paragon Sentry Controller. Bartlett-Paragon Sentinel SmartTouch Controller.
Paragon Sentry Programmer. Paragon Sentinel Touch-Screen Controller.
HOW TO CHOOSE A KNIFE-MAKING KILN A GENERAL INTRODUCTION TO THE PARAGON KM KILNS
Paragon KM36T Knife-Making Kiln With A Sentry Xpress Programmer. Paragon KM24T XL Double-Barrel Knife-Making Kiln With A Sentry Programmer. Paragon KM45T Knife-Making Furnace With A Side Door With A Sentry Programmer. Paragon KM18T Pro Knife-Making Oven With A Sentry Programmer.

Paragon KM Kilns For Making Knives, Blades, Cutters, Dies, Tools, Model Parts, And Gun Components, Annealing, Heat-Treating Metals, And General Glass Work.

Paragon KM kilns are 1290°C, rectangular, front-opening, table-top kilns, with digital programmers. Choose Paragon black or customised berry, blue, jade, navy, pink, purple, or turquoise. Customised kilns are made to order so can't be returned if the colour isn't as in the photo.

There are five regular versions: the KM14T, KM18T, KM24T, KM36T, and KM45T, the number being the approximate interior depth, the number being the approximate interior depth in inches. T means tilted front.

There are three XL versions: the KM9T XL, KM18T XL, and KM24T XL. The XL versions are twice as wide as the regular and have Sentry 12-key programmers. In the US, Paragon calls them double-barrel.

There are three 5-star versions: the KM18T Pro, KM24T Pro, and KM36T Pro with stainless-steel spring-assisted guillotine doors, high-power fast-heat ceramic-fibre interiors, 3-zone temperature control, and Sentinel SmartTouch programmers.

The Sentry 12-key programmer and the Sentinel SmartTouch have advanced and time-saving features, including optional automatic control over an electric kiln vent, a gas injection system, and a USB computer interface.


All Paragon kilns are modified as new, or better, ideas become part of the current design:

Paragon uses the prefix Xpress if the kiln has a Sentry Xpress 3-key programmer. For example: Xpress KM14T, Xpress KM18T, Xpress KM24T, and Xpress KM36T. However, for most other kilns it's used inconsistently, or not at all: so rely on the descriptions here.

In 2017, Paragon gave the programmers an easier-to-read tilt. D, which meant depth, was replaced with T, which means tilted. So, for example, a KM24D became a KM24T, although KM24 would have been simpler since all the D versions have been discontinued. And, D and T are used elsewhere for door and top ...

In 2018, Paragon introduced the XL versions. In the US, Paragon calls them double-barrel, although double-barrel usually means two separate barrels, not one barrel which is twice as wide.

In 2018, Paragon added solid-state electronic relays which provide complete electrical isolation between their input and output terminals. They're slightly more expensive, but don't have moving parts or mechanical contacts. And, because there are no moving parts, they're silent, have a very long life, and are ultra-reliable.

In 2019, Paragon introduced the Pro versions, with stainless-steel spring-assisted guillotine doors, high-power fast-heat ceramic-fibre interiors, 3-zone temperature control, and touch-screen programmers.


Here are some important reminders:

The KM14T, KM18T, KM24T, and KM36T normally have a Sentry Xpress 3-key digital programmer, although you can upgrade to a Sentry 12-key or a Sentinel SmartTouch touch screen.
The KM9T XL, KM18T XL, KM24T XL, and KM45T normally have a Sentry 12-key digital programmer, although you can upgrade to a Sentinel Smart Touch touch screen.
The KM18T Pro, KM24T Pro, and KM36T Pro normally have a Sentinel SmartTouch touch screen, although you can choose a Sentry 12-key digital programmer.
The Sentry and Sentinel programmers both have advanced and time-saving features, including optional automatic control over an electric kiln vent, a gas injection system, and a USB computer interface.

When the programmer turns the elements off at, for example, 700°C, residual heat will continue to increase the temperature briefly. A small kiln might overshoot to 715°C before dropping back down. A software modification slows down the heating just before the target temperature, reducing any overshoot and improving the accuracy.

The Pro-version ceramic-fibre interior has flat wave-shaped elements embedded in the surface of the 50mm thick fibre so it heats up quickly. For durability, the surface of the fibre is rigidised so, unlike firebricks, it's dust free.

They all have silent long-life solid-state relays mounted on an aluminium heat-sink. These have no moving parts and the inputs and outputs are electrically and mechanically isolated.

Nickel-chromium K-type thermocouples respond quickly to temperature changes and resist corrosion. However, for high-temperature precision professional use, these can be upgraded to platinum-rhodium S-types.

Generally, kiln shelves aren't used for heat-treating and making knives. However, for ceramics, glass, and metal clays there are several shelf kits in the on-line shop: never fire things directly on the floor of the firing chamber.


Use them for knife-making, heat-treating, hardening, and tempering blades, cutters, dies, and tools, annealing beads and glass, firing ceramics, earthenware, porcelain, pottery, and stoneware, china paints, applying decals, dichroic glass, enamels, fire polishing, glass-art, glass casting, fusing, moulding, sagging and slumping, forming glass panels, glazes, lab testing, lamp-work, lost-wax casting, jewellery making, melting gold and silver, firing bronze and copper metal clays, moulding gun and model parts, pâte de verre, sintering gold and silver clays, stained glass, and many other materials and processes.

Although smaller kilns are more economic for jewellery-making, you can still use most popular small-scale materials such as Accent Gold, Art Clay metal clays, BullsEye glasses, dichroic glasses, enamels, GlasClay, Image Transfer Solution, Metal Clay Veneer, PMC silver clay, Prometheus bronze clay, ProCopper clay, and SilverEtch.
And there's an increasingly diverse range of other metal clays, such as Cinter, Clay Mania, Creative, Goldie, Hadar Jacobson, Metal Adventures, Meteor, Noble, and PMC Sterling.

The KM series firing chamber proportions are ideal for blades, from pocket knives to ceremonial swords. But, with their maximum temperature of 1290°C, you could also make architectural pieces, badges, beads, bracelets, candleholders, ceramic-art, decorations, dolls, figurines, fingerprint keepsakes, glass-art, gun parts, jewellery, medals, miniatures, models, ornaments, pendants, porcelain beads, pet id-tags, souvenirs, stained-glass designs, tableware, tiles, and tools, as unique hand-crafted pieces or repeatable stock for sale.


They're ideal for your knife studio, machine shop, metal-work business, engineering works, technical facility, arts centre, college, course venue, shared craft units, dental lab, glass works, medical laboratory, or university.


If you're not sure that a KM kiln is the right choice:

Bead-annealing kilns generally have a maximum temperature of 650°C, such as the BlueBird Series. However, other kilns have bead doors: the small Caldera-B and SC2B, the medium Xpress-E12B, and the larger Fusion-14B.

Glass kilns generally have a maximum temperature of 925°C. For these, look at the F Series, Fusion:CS Series, GL Series, or Pearl Series. These are not hot enough for ceramics.

Jewellery kilns generally have a maximum temperature of 1095°C. For these, look at the small SC Series or the medium Xpress Series. The SC series are not hot enough for ceramics.

Ceramics kilns generally have a maximum temperature of 1290°C. For these, look at the small Caldera Series and FireFly Series, medium Xpress Series, or large Janus Series, PMT Series, and TNF Series. These can also be used for glass work.

Heat-treating kilns generally have a maximum temperature of 1290°C. For these, look at the HT Series and PMT Series. Although they look similar, the HT has a bottom-hinged door and the PMT has a side-hinged door.

Knife-making kilns generally have a maximum temperature of 1290°C. The KM Series are made for depth rather than width. You can choose a guillotine, drop-down, or a side-hinged door.

The W Series have a top vent so are usually used for jewellery moulds and lost-wax burnout. For lost wax casting there are optional metal grids and wax trays. The small SC Series and most of the medium Xpress Series also have top vents.


To learn more about other kilns, use the appropriate links below the menu bar near the top of the page. However, as each series has kilns of different sizes with different options there's only a selection in the table below:


VERSION DESCRIPTION PROGRAMMER MAX °C POWER W WEIGHT KG INTERIOR INTERIOR SIZE MM
KM-9T XL drop or side door 12-key 1290 1800 67 firebrick 279 x 229 x 108
KM-14T drop or side door 3-key 1290 1920 50 firebrick 140 x 368 x 108
KM-18T drop or side door 3-key 1290 2000 59 firebrick 140 x 457 x 108
KM-18T XL drop or side door 12-key 1290 3073 85 firebrick 279 x 457 x 108
KM-18T PRO guillotine, drop, or side door touch screen 1290 3300 107 ceramic fibre 165 x 457 x 133
KM-24T drop or side door 3-key 1290 2600 87 firebrick 140 x 610 x 108
KM-24T XL drop or side door 12-key 1290 4100 99 firebrick 279 x 610 x 108
KM-24T PRO guillotine, drop, or side door touch screen 1290 6960 121 ceramic fibre 165 x 610 x 133
KM-36T drop or side door 3-key 1290 3600 80 firebrick 140 x 914 x 108
KM-36T PRO guillotine, drop, or side door touch screen 1290 10100 159 ceramic fibre 165 x 914 x 133
KM-45T drop or side door 12-key 1290 4560 115 firebrick 140 x 1143 x 108
Caldera top opener 3-key 1290 1800 20 firebrick 203 x 203 x 171
F-130 Elite front punty door 3-key 925 2400 103 firebrick 279 x 279 x 330
Fusion CS-16D top opener 3-key 925 2400 85 firebrick 406 x 406 x 165
HT-22D drop door 12-key 1095 7200 140 firebrick 533 x 533 x 337
PMT-21 front opener 12-key 1290 9600 290 firebrick 533 x 533 x 330
Xpress E12 front opener 3-key 1290 2700 41 firebrick 196 x 295 x 219

Digital programmers allow you to set up sequences, each one with multiple heating, holding, or cooling segments: so you can choose the heating and cooling rates, target temperatures, and hold times, save the sequences, and re-use them.

Being able to create, edit, and save your own programmes is important because, having experimented and diversified, most people fire materials, or combinations of materials, at different temperatures and for different times than are recommended.


For help, or in the unlikely event of a fault, you can mail or call an engineer in the UK. However, checks, adjustments, and repairs are simple, needing little more than a PosiDriv screwdriver: watch the on-line videos using the watch-videos link or read the help pages using use the help link, both below the menu bar near the top of any page. Alternatively, we can service the kiln in our workshop at Cherry Heaven.


After looking at each kiln in detail, I'll introduce the appropriate accessories, options, and upgrades.

THE PARAGON KM9T XL KILN KNIFE-MAKING, HEAT-TREATING, BLADES, TOOLS, ANNEALING, CERAMICS, AND GLASS

The Paragon KM18D Double Barrel XL Furnace For Making Knives, Blades, Cutters, Dies, Tools, Model Parts, And Gun Components, Annealing, Heat-Treating Metals, And General Glass Work.

Paragon KM9D XL Knife-Making Kiln With A Sentry Programmer. Paragon KM9D XL Knife-Making Oven With A Sentry Programmer. Orton-Paragon Sentry Controller. Bartlett-Paragon Sentinel SmartTouch Programmer.

The Paragon KM9T XL is a 1290°C, rectangular, plug-in, front-opening, table-top, firebrick furnace, with a ramp-hold Sentry 12-key digital programmer. Choose Paragon black or customised berry, blue, jade, navy, pink, purple, or turquoise.


Paragon's kiln names often use a suffixed number to represent one or more of the internal dimensions in inches. For this kiln, 9 means that the inside is about 9 inches deep. In the US, the XL is called a double-barrel.


The UK-EU kiln is rated at 230V-240V 1800W, so can use a regular mains socket. To comply with EU safety regulations, it's fitted with a switch that cuts off the power to the elements when the kiln is opened: an important safety feature. However, never get careless: kilns are very hot and connected to the mains.

The external dimensions are 559mm x 597mm x 457mm high. The standard drop-down door is hinged on the bottom and kept closed by a counter-balanced handle, although you can choose a side-hinged door. The shipping weight, including the crate, is about 67kg.

The firing chamber measures 279mm x 229mm x 108mm high, and heats from the top and both sides with the elements in dropped recessed grooves in the 76mm thick bricks. The kiln has a silent long-life solid-state relay mounted on an aluminium heat-sink and a long-life nickel-chromium K-type thermocouple.

The programmer's electronic display prompts for heating rates, target temperatures, hold times, and cooling rates, making it easy to set up and re-use accurate heating, holding, and cooling sequences. An optional cone-fire mode, up to cone 10, will simplify any work with ceramics.


The accessories, options, and upgrades for this kiln are in the on-line shop:

List. a berry, blue, jade, navy, pink, purple, or turquoise respray: normally black
List. a side-hinged door: normally a drop-down: factory fitted
List. a programmer upgrade: Sentry 12-key to a Sentinel SmartTouch: more useful features: factory fitted
List. a programmer upgrade from ramp-hold to cone-fire and ramp-hold: up to cone 10: factory fitted
List. a gas injection flow meter with a controlling solenoid: needs 12-key or touch: factory fitted
List. an electric kiln vent: factory fitted
List. an auxiliary power output for automatic vent control: needs 12-key or touch: factory fitted
List. a USB computer interface: needs 12-key or touch: factory fitted
List. a long-life S-type platinum-rhodium thermocouple upgrade: factory fitted
List. a knife-making kit: four blade holders with removable pins, eight holder-supports, and hot gloves
List. shelf kits and shelf paper
List. ceramic fibre cloth
List. ceramic block
List. HEPA dust mask
List. clear protective glasses
List. glare-resistant glasses
List. heat-resistant gloves

And finally, my opinion:

The KM9T XL is a professional, high-temperature, fully-programmable kiln, ideal for a blade workshop or an engineering facility making pocket knives and kitchen knives, and annealing, hardening, heat-treating, and tempering blades, cutters, dies, and tools. And you can work with ceramics and glass within the kiln's size limits. Just be sure that 229mm is deep enough and that a KM14T or a KM18T wouldn't be better.

The XL is twice the width of the regular KM furnaces so will hold twice as many blades or components, reducing the cost and time per item. And, as the internal diagonal dimension is 361mm, it will hold longer parts.

The Sentry 12-key digital programmer has advanced and time-saving features, including optional automatic control over an electric kiln vent, a gas injection system, and a USB computer interface. Although it can be upgraded to the similar Sentinel SmartTouch, the extra features probably aren't worth having for this size kiln.

THE PARAGON KM9T XL: KILN FURNITURE

The Paragon KM9T XL Kiln Furniture.

Experienced knife makers often make their own blade holders, holder-supports, and accessories, so there's no included kit. However, there's a getting-started recommended kit, not included in the price: four blade holders with removable pins, eight holder-supports, and a pair of heat-resistant gloves.

For annealing beads and glass, firing ceramics and porcelain, fusing dichroics, enamelling, heat treating, lampworking, or sintering metal clays, there's a recommended shelf kit, not included in the price: one durable 178mm x 178mm x 15mm cordierite shelf, four 12mm shelf posts, and 450gm of glass separator.

THE PARAGON KM14T KILN KNIFE-MAKING, HEAT-TREATING, BLADES, TOOLS, ANNEALING, CERAMICS, AND GLASS

The Paragon KM14T Furnace For Making Knives, Blades, Cutters, Dies, Tools, Model Parts, And Gun Components, Annealing, Heat-Treating Metals, And General Glass Work.

Paragon KM14T Knife Making And Heat-Treating Kiln With A Sentry Xpress Programmer. Paragon KM14T Knife Making And Heat-Treating Furnace With A Sentry Xpress Programmer. Orton-Paragon Sentry Xpress Programmer. Orton-Paragon Sentry Controller.

The Paragon KM14T is a 1290°C, rectangular, plug-in, front-opening, table-top, firebrick kiln, with a ramp-hold Sentry Xpress 3-key digital programmer. Choose Paragon black or customised berry, blue, jade, navy, pink, purple, or turquoise.


Paragon's kiln names often use a suffixed number to represent one or more of the internal dimensions in inches. For this kiln, 14 means that the inside is about 14 inches deep, more accurately 14.5 inches.


The UK-EU kiln is rated at 230V-240V 1920W, so can use a regular mains socket. To comply with EU safety regulations, it's fitted with a switch that cuts off the power to the elements when the kiln is opened: an important safety feature. However, never get careless: kilns are very hot and connected to the mains.

The external dimensions are 432mm x 686mm x 432mm high. The standard drop-down door is hinged on the bottom and kept closed by a counter-balanced handle, although you can choose a side-hinged door. The shipping weight, including the crate, is about 50kg.

The firing chamber measures 140mm x 368mm x 108mm high, and heats from both sides with the element in dropped recessed grooves in the 76mm thick bricks. The kiln has a silent long-life solid-state relay mounted on an aluminium heat-sink and a long-life nickel-chromium K-type thermocouple.

The programmer's electronic display prompts for heating rates, target temperatures, hold times, and cooling rates, making it easy to set up and re-use accurate heating, holding, and cooling sequences. An optional cone-fire mode, up to cone 10, will simplify any work with ceramics.


The accessories, options, and upgrades for this kiln are in the on-line shop:

List. a berry, blue, jade, navy, pink, purple, or turquoise respray: normally black
List. a side-hinged door: normally a drop-down: factory fitted
List. a programmer upgrade: Sentry Xpress 3-key to a Sentry 12-key: more useful features: factory fitted
List. a programmer upgrade: Sentry Xpress 3-key to a Sentinel SmartTouch: more useful features: factory fitted
List. a programmer upgrade from ramp-hold to cone-fire and ramp-hold: up to cone 10: factory fitted
List. a gas injection flow meter with a controlling solenoid: needs 12-key or touch: factory fitted
List. an electric kiln vent: factory fitted
List. an auxiliary power output for automatic vent control: needs 12-key or touch: factory fitted
List. a USB computer interface: needs 12-key or touch: factory fitted
List. a long-life S-type platinum-rhodium thermocouple upgrade: factory fitted
List. a knife-making kit: four blade holders with removable pins, eight holder-supports, and hot gloves
List. shelf kits and shelf paper
List. ceramic fibre cloth
List. ceramic block
List. HEPA dust mask
List. clear protective glasses
List. glare-resistant glasses
List. heat-resistant gloves

And finally, my opinion:

The KM14T is a professional, high-temperature, fully-programmable kiln, ideal for a blade workshop or an engineering facility making pocket knives, hunting knives, kitchen knives, and annealing, hardening, heat-treating, and tempering blades, cutters, dies, and tools. And you can work with ceramics and glass within the kiln's size limits. Just be sure that 368mm is deep enough and that a KM18T wouldn't be better.

Although the programmer can be upgraded, from a Sentry Xpress 3-key to a Sentry 12-key, the extra features probably aren't worth having for this size kiln unless you have a busy blade business or would like automatic control over an electric kiln vent, a gas injection system, or a USB computer interface.

THE PARAGON KM14T: KILN FURNITURE

The Paragon KM14T Kiln Furniture.

Experienced knife makers often make their own blade holders, holder-supports, and accessories, so there's no included kit. However, there's a getting-started recommended kit, not included in the price: four blade holders with removable pins, eight holder-supports, and a pair of heat-resistant gloves.

For annealing beads and glass, firing ceramics and porcelain, fusing dichroics, enamelling, heat treating, lampworking, or sintering metal clays, there's a recommended shelf kit, not included in the price: one durable 125mm x 125mm x 15mm cordierite shelf, four 12mm shelf posts, and 450gm of glass separator. This kiln has room for two shelves, one behind the other.

THE PARAGON KM18T KILN KNIFE-MAKING, HEAT-TREATING, BLADES, TOOLS, ANNEALING, CERAMICS, AND GLASS

The Paragon KM18T Furnace For Making Knives, Blades, Cutters, Dies, Tools, Model Parts, And Gun Components, Annealing, Heat-Treating Metals, And General Glass Work.

Paragon KM18T Knife-Making Kiln With A Sentry Xpress Programmer. Paragon KM18T Knife-Making Furnace With A Sentry Xpress Programmer. Orton-Paragon Sentry Xpress Programmer. Orton-Paragon Sentry Controller.

The Paragon KM18T is a 1290°C, rectangular, plug-in, front-opening, table-top, firebrick kiln, with a ramp-hold Sentry Xpress 3-key digital programmer. Choose Paragon black or customised berry, blue, jade, navy, pink, purple, or turquoise.


Paragon's kiln names often use a suffixed number to represent one or more of the internal dimensions in inches. For this kiln, 18 means that the inside is about 18 inches deep.


The UK-EU kiln is rated at 230V-240V 2000W, so can use a regular mains socket. To comply with EU safety regulations, it's fitted with a switch that cuts off the power to the elements when the kiln is opened: an important safety feature. However, never get careless: kilns are very hot and connected to the mains.

The external dimensions are 432mm x 787mm x 432mm high. The standard drop-down door is hinged on the bottom and kept closed by a counter-balanced handle, although you can choose a side-hinged door. The shipping weight, including the crate, is about 59kg.

The firing chamber measures 140mm x 457mm x 108mm high, and heats from both sides with the element in dropped recessed grooves in the 76mm thick bricks. The kiln has a silent long-life solid-state relay mounted on an aluminium heat-sink and a long-life nickel-chromium K-type thermocouple.

The programmer's electronic display prompts for heating rates, target temperatures, hold times, and cooling rates, making it easy to set up and re-use accurate heating, holding, and cooling sequences. An optional cone-fire mode, up to cone 10, will simplify any work with ceramics.


The accessories, options, and upgrades for this kiln are in the on-line shop:

List. a berry, blue, jade, navy, pink, purple, or turquoise respray: normally black
List. a side-hinged door: normally a drop-down: factory fitted
List. a programmer upgrade: Sentry Xpress 3-key to a Sentry 12-key: more useful features: factory fitted
List. a programmer upgrade: Sentry Xpress 3-key to a Sentinel SmartTouch: more useful features: factory fitted
List. a programmer upgrade from ramp-hold to cone-fire and ramp-hold: up to cone 10: factory fitted
List. a gas injection flow meter with a controlling solenoid: needs 12-key or touch: factory fitted
List. an electric kiln vent: factory fitted
List. an auxiliary power output for automatic vent control: needs 12-key or touch: factory fitted
List. a USB computer interface: needs 12-key or touch: factory fitted
List. a long-life S-type platinum-rhodium thermocouple upgrade: factory fitted
List. a knife-making kit: four blade holders with removable pins, eight holder-supports, and hot gloves
List. shelf kits and shelf paper
List. ceramic fibre cloth
List. ceramic block
List. HEPA dust mask
List. clear protective glasses
List. glare-resistant glasses
List. heat-resistant gloves

And finally, my opinion:

The KM18T is a professional, high-temperature, fully-programmable kiln, ideal for a blade workshop or an engineering facility making pocket knives, hunting knives, kitchen knives, and annealing, hardening, heat-treating, and tempering blades, cutters, dies, and tools. And you can work with ceramics and glass within the kiln's size limits. Just be sure that 457mm is deep enough and that a KM24T wouldn't be better. Or the double-barrel KM18T XL?

The programmer can be upgraded from a Sentry Xpress 3-key to a Sentry 12-key or a Sentinel SmartTouch. Both have advanced and time-saving features, including optional automatic control over an electric kiln vent, a gas injection system, and a USB computer interface.

THE PARAGON KM18T: KILN FURNITURE

The Paragon KM18T Kiln Furniture.

Experienced knife makers often make their own blade holders, holder-supports, and accessories, so there's no included kit. However, there's a getting-started recommended kit, not included in the price: four blade holders with removable pins, eight holder-supports, and a pair of heat-resistant gloves.

For annealing beads and glass, firing ceramics and porcelain, fusing dichroics, enamelling, heat treating, lampworking, or sintering metal clays, there's a recommended shelf kit, not included in the price: one durable 125mm x 125mm x 15mm cordierite shelf, four 12mm shelf posts, and 450gm of glass separator. This kiln has room for three shelves, one behind the other.

THE PARAGON KM18T XL KILN KNIFE-MAKING, HEAT-TREATING, BLADES, TOOLS, ANNEALING, CERAMICS, AND GLASS

The Paragon KM18D Double Barrel XL Furnace For Making Knives, Blades, Cutters, Dies, Tools, Model Parts, And Gun Components, Annealing, Heat-Treating Metals, And General Glass Work.

Paragon KM18D XL Knife-Making Kiln With A Sentry Programmer. Paragon KM18D XL Knife-Making Oven With A Sentry Programmer. Paragon Sentry Digital Controller. Paragon Sentinel Digital Programmer.

The Paragon KM18T XL is a 1290°C, rectangular, plug-in, front-opening, table-top, firebrick oven, with a ramp-hold Sentry 12-key digital programmer. Choose Paragon black or customised berry, blue, jade, navy, pink, purple, or turquoise.


Paragon's kiln names often use a suffixed number to represent one or more of the internal dimensions in inches. For this kiln, 18 means that the inside is about 18 inches deep. In the US, the XL is called a double-barrel.


The UK-EU kiln is rated at 230V-240V 3073W, so can use a regular mains socket. To comply with EU safety regulations, it's fitted with a switch that cuts off the power to the elements when the kiln is opened: an important safety feature. However, never get careless: kilns are very hot and connected to the mains.

The external dimensions are 762mm x 762mm x 457mm high. The standard drop-down door is hinged on the bottom and kept closed by a counter-balanced handle, although you can choose a side-hinged door. The shipping weight, including the crate, is about 85kg.

The firing chamber measures 279mm x 457mm x 108mm high, and heats from the top and both sides with the elements in dropped recessed grooves in the 76mm thick bricks. The kiln has a silent long-life solid-state relay mounted on an aluminium heat-sink and a long-life nickel-chromium K-type thermocouple.

The programmer's electronic display prompts for heating rates, target temperatures, hold times, and cooling rates, making it easy to set up and re-use accurate heating, holding, and cooling sequences. An optional cone-fire mode, up to cone 10, will simplify any work with ceramics.


The accessories, options, and upgrades for this kiln are in the on-line shop:

List. a berry, blue, jade, navy, pink, purple, or turquoise respray: normally black
List. a side-hinged door: normally a drop-down: factory fitted
List. a programmer upgrade: Sentry 12-key to a Sentinel SmartTouch: more useful features: factory fitted
List. a programmer upgrade from ramp-hold to cone-fire and ramp-hold: up to cone 10: factory fitted
List. a gas injection flow meter with a controlling solenoid: needs 12-key or touch: factory fitted
List. an electric kiln vent: factory fitted
List. an auxiliary power output for automatic vent control: needs 12-key or touch: factory fitted
List. a USB computer interface: needs 12-key or touch: factory fitted
List. a long-life S-type platinum-rhodium thermocouple upgrade: factory fitted
List. a knife-making kit: four blade holders with removable pins, eight holder-supports, and hot gloves
List. shelf kits and shelf paper
List. ceramic fibre cloth
List. ceramic block
List. HEPA dust mask
List. clear protective glasses
List. glare-resistant glasses
List. heat-resistant gloves

And finally, my opinion:

The KM18T XL is a professional, high-temperature, fully-programmable kiln, ideal for a blade workshop or an engineering facility making pocket knives, hunting knives, and kitchen knives, and annealing, hardening, heat-treating, and tempering blades, cutters, dies, and tools. And you can work with ceramics and glass within the kiln's size limits. Just be sure that 457mm is deep enough and that a KM24T wouldn't be better.

The XL is twice the width of the regular KM furnaces so will hold twice as many blades or components, reducing the cost and time per item. And, as the internal diagonal dimension is 535mm, it will hold longer parts.

The Sentry 12-key digital programmer has advanced and time-saving features, including optional automatic control over an electric kiln vent, a gas injection system, and a USB computer interface. The similar Sentinel SmartTouch is an alternative.

THE PARAGON KM18T XL: KILN FURNITURE

The Paragon KM18T XL Kiln Furniture.

Experienced knife makers often make their own blade holders, holder-supports, and accessories, so there's no included kit. However, there's a getting-started recommended kit, not included in the price: four blade holders with removable pins, eight holder-supports, and a pair of heat-resistant gloves.

For annealing beads and glass, firing ceramics and porcelain, fusing dichroics, enamelling, heat treating, lampworking, or sintering metal clays, there's a recommended shelf kit, not included in the price: one durable 178mm x 178mm x 15mm cordierite shelf, four 12mm shelf posts, and 450gm of glass separator. This kiln has room for two shelves, one behind the other.

THE PARAGON KM18T PRO KILN KNIFE-MAKING, HEAT-TREATING, BLADES, TOOLS, ANNEALING, CERAMICS, AND GLASS

The Paragon KM18T Pro 3-Zone Furnace For Making Knives, Blades, Cutters, Dies, Tools, Model Parts, And Gun Components, Annealing, Heat-Treating Metals, And General Glass Work.

Paragon KM18T Pro Knife-Making Kiln With A Sentry Programmer. Paragon KM18T Pro Knife-Making Oven With A Sentry Programmer. Bartlett-Paragon Sentinel Touch Screen Programmer.

The Paragon KM18T PRO is a 1290°C, rectangular, wired-in, front-opening, table-top, ceramic fibre oven, with a ramp-hold Sentinel SmartTouch digital programmer. Choose Paragon black or customised berry, blue, jade, navy, pink, purple, or turquoise.


Paragon's kiln names often use a suffixed number to represent one or more of the internal dimensions in inches. For this kiln, 18 means that the inside is about 18 inches deep.


This is a 5-star luxury kiln with a stainless-steel spring-assisted guillotine door, a high-power fast-heat ceramic-fibre interior, 3-zone temperature control, and a Sentinel SmartTouch programmer with advanced and time-saving features.

The UK-EU kiln is rated at 230V-240V 3300W, so it needs a 14A minimum wired-in power supply. To comply with EU safety regulations, it's fitted with a switch that cuts off the power to the elements when the kiln is opened: an important safety feature. However, never get careless: kilns are very hot and connected to the mains.

The external dimensions are 368mm x 813mm x 457mm high. The standard guillotine door is spring-assisted on both sides for easy one-handed opening, although you can choose a counter-balanced drop-down or a side-hinged door. The shipping weight, including the crate, is about 107kg.

The firing chamber measures 165mm x 457mm x 133mm high, and heats from both sides with the elements embedded in the surface of the 64mm thick fibre. The kiln has three silent long-life solid-state relays mounted on an aluminium heat-sink and three long-life nickel-chromium K-type thermocouples.

The programmer's electronic display prompts for heating rates, target temperatures, hold times, and cooling rates, making it easy to set up and re-use accurate heating, holding, and cooling sequences. An optional cone-fire mode, up to cone 10, will simplify any work with ceramics.


The accessories, options, and upgrades for this kiln are in the on-line shop:

List. a berry, blue, jade, navy, pink, purple, or turquoise respray: normally black
List. a side-hinged or drop-down door: normally a guillotine: factory fitted
List. a programmer upgrade from ramp-hold to cone-fire and ramp-hold: up to cone 10: factory fitted
List. a gas injection flow meter with a controlling solenoid: needs 12-key or touch: factory fitted
List. an electric kiln vent: factory fitted
List. an auxiliary power output for automatic vent control: needs 12-key or touch: factory fitted
List. a USB computer interface: needs 12-key or touch: factory fitted
List. a three-zone long-life S-type platinum-rhodium thermocouple upgrade: factory fitted
List. a knife-making kit: four blade holders with removable pins, eight holder-supports, and hot gloves
List. shelf kits and shelf paper
List. ceramic fibre cloth
List. ceramic block
List. HEPA dust mask
List. clear protective glasses
List. glare-resistant glasses
List. heat-resistant gloves

And finally, my opinion:

The KM18T Pro is a design classic, made for precision work that needs reliable and stable temperatures. The lightweight rigidised ceramic-fibre interior has closely-spaced wave-shaped elements embedded in the surface of the fibre, giving a more even heat distribution than conventional coiled elements in firebrick.

The Sentinel SmartTouch programmer has advanced and time-saving features, including optional automatic control over an electric kiln vent, a gas injection system, and a USB computer interface.

The KM18T Pro is 25mm higher inside than the regular KM18T but, as it has a power rating 1.65 times higher, it heats up more quickly and has a faster response time during the hold segments of the firing sequence, minimising any residual heat temperature fluctuations as the elements turn on and off.

The elements are switched on and off by the touch-screen programmer and three silent long-life solid-state relays mounted on an aluminium heat-sink. These have no moving parts and the inputs and outputs are electrically and mechanically isolated.

The stainless-steel spring-assisted guillotine door is counter-balanced for easy one-handed operation. It actuates a switch that cuts off the power to the elements when the kiln is opened so you can't touch anything live.

There are three thermocouples spaced along the top, so the touch-screen programmer is aware of any temperature gradients and can use its 3-zone feature to maintain accurate and consistent temperatures throughout the kiln.

It's a professional, high-temperature, fully-programmable kiln, ideal for a blade workshop or an engineering facility. And you can work with ceramics and glass within its size limits. Just be sure that 457mm is deep enough and that a KM24T, the wider KM24T XL, or the KM24T Pro wouldn't be better.

THE PARAGON KM18T PRO: KILN FURNITURE

The Paragon KM18T Pro Kiln Furniture.

Experienced knife makers often make their own blade holders, holder-supports, and accessories, so there's no included kit. However, there's a getting-started recommended kit, not included in the price: four blade holders with removable pins, eight holder-supports, and a pair of heat-resistant gloves.

For annealing beads and glass, firing ceramics and porcelain, fusing dichroics, enamelling, heat treating, lampworking, or sintering metal clays, there's a recommended shelf kit, not included in the price: one durable 125mm x 125mm x 15mm cordierite shelf, four 12mm shelf posts, and 450gm of glass separator. This kiln has room for two shelves, one behind the other.

THE PARAGON KM24T KILN KNIFE-MAKING, HEAT-TREATING, BLADES, TOOLS, ANNEALING, CERAMICS, AND GLASS

The Paragon KM24T Furnace For Making Knives, Blades, Cutters, Dies, Tools, Model Parts, And Gun Components, Annealing, Heat-Treating Metals, And General Glass Work.

Paragon KM24T Knife-Making Kiln With A Sentry Xpress Programmer. Paragon KM24T Knife-Making Furnace With A Sentry Xpress Programmer. Orton-Paragon Sentry Xpress Programmer. Orton-Paragon Sentry Controller.

The Paragon KM24T is a 1290°C, rectangular, plug-in, front-opening, table-top, firebrick kiln, with a ramp-hold Sentry Xpress 3-key digital programmer. Choose Paragon black or customised berry, blue, jade, navy, pink, purple, or turquoise.


Paragon's kiln names often use a suffixed number to represent one or more of the internal dimensions in inches. For this kiln, 24 means that the inside is about 24 inches deep.


The UK-EU kiln is rated at 230V-240V 2600W, so can use a regular mains socket. To comply with EU safety regulations, it's fitted with a switch that cuts off the power to the elements when the kiln is opened: an important safety feature. However, never get careless: kilns are very hot and connected to the mains.

The external dimensions are 432mm x 940mm x 432mm high. The standard drop-down door is hinged on the bottom and kept closed by a counter-balanced handle, although you can choose a side-hinged door. The shipping weight, including the crate, is about 87kg.

The firing chamber measures 140mm x 610mm x 108mm high, and heats from both sides with the element in dropped recessed grooves in the 76mm thick bricks. The kiln has a silent long-life solid-state relay mounted on an aluminium heat-sink and a long-life nickel-chromium K-type thermocouple.

The programmer's electronic display prompts for heating rates, target temperatures, hold times, and cooling rates, making it easy to set up and re-use accurate heating, holding, and cooling sequences. An optional cone-fire mode, up to cone 10, will simplify any work with ceramics.


The accessories, options, and upgrades for this kiln are in the on-line shop:

List. a berry, blue, jade, navy, pink, purple, or turquoise respray: normally black
List. a side-hinged door: normally a drop-down: factory fitted
List. a programmer upgrade: Sentry Xpress 3-key to a Sentry 12-key: more useful features: factory fitted
List. a programmer upgrade: Sentry Xpress 3-key to a Sentinel SmartTouch: more useful features: factory fitted
List. a programmer upgrade from ramp-hold to cone-fire and ramp-hold: up to cone 10: factory fitted
List. a gas injection flow meter with a controlling solenoid: needs 12-key or touch: factory fitted
List. an electric kiln vent: factory fitted
List. an auxiliary power output for automatic vent control: needs 12-key or touch: factory fitted
List. a USB computer interface: needs 12-key or touch: factory fitted
List. a long-life S-type platinum-rhodium thermocouple upgrade: factory fitted
List. a three-zone long-life S-type platinum-rhodium thermocouple upgrade: factory fitted
List. a knife-making kit: four blade holders with removable pins, eight holder-supports, and hot gloves
List. shelf kits and shelf paper
List. ceramic fibre cloth
List. ceramic block
List. HEPA dust mask
List. clear protective glasses
List. glare-resistant glasses
List. heat-resistant gloves

And finally, my opinion:

The KM24T is a professional, high-temperature, fully-programmable kiln, ideal for a blade workshop or an engineering facility making pocket knives, hunting knives, kitchen knives, and annealing, hardening, heat-treating, and tempering blades, cutters, dies, and tools. And you can work with ceramics and glass within the kiln's size limits. Just be sure that 610mm is deep enough and that a KM36T wouldn't be better. Or the double-barrel KM24T XL?

The programmer can be upgraded from a Sentry Xpress 3-key to a Sentry 12-key or a Sentinel SmartTouch. Both have advanced and time-saving features, including optional automatic control over an electric kiln vent, a gas injection system, and a USB computer interface.

THE PARAGON KM24T: KILN FURNITURE

The Paragon KM24T Kiln Furniture.

Experienced knife makers often make their own blade holders, holder-supports, and accessories, so there's no included kit. However, there's a getting-started recommended kit, not included in the price: four blade holders with removable pins, eight holder-supports, and a pair of heat-resistant gloves.

For annealing beads and glass, firing ceramics and porcelain, fusing dichroics, enamelling, heat treating, lampworking, or sintering metal clays, there's a recommended shelf kit, not included in the price: one durable 125mm x 125mm x 15mm cordierite shelf, four 12mm shelf posts, and 450gm of glass separator. This kiln has room for three shelves, one behind the other: more than three might make them hard to put in and take out.

THE PARAGON KM24T XL KILN KNIFE-MAKING, HEAT-TREATING, BLADES, TOOLS, ANNEALING, CERAMICS, AND GLASS

The Paragon KM24T Double Barrel XL Furnace For Making Knives, Blades, Cutters, Dies, Tools, Model Parts, And Gun Components, Annealing, Heat-Treating Metals, And General Glass Work.

Paragon KM24D XL Knife-Making Kiln With A Sentry Programmer. Paragon KM18D XL Knife-Making Oven With A Sentry Programmer. Orton-Paragon Sentry Programmer. Bartlett-Paragon Sentinel Touch Screen Controller.

The Paragon KM24T XL is a 1290°C, rectangular, wired-in, front-opening, table-top, firebrick oven, with a ramp-hold Sentry 12-key digital programmer. Choose Paragon black or customised berry, blue, jade, navy, pink, purple, or turquoise.


Paragon's kiln names often use a suffixed number to represent one or more of the internal dimensions in inches. For this kiln, 24 means that the inside is about 24 inches deep. In the US, the XL is called a double-barrel.


The UK-EU kiln is rated at 230V-240V 4100W, so needs a 17A minimum wired-in power supply. To comply with EU safety regulations, it's fitted with a switch that cuts off the power to the elements when the kiln is opened: an important safety feature. However, never get careless: kilns are very hot and connected to the mains.

The external dimensions are 762mm x 762mm x 457mm high. The standard drop-down door is hinged on the bottom and kept closed by a counter-balanced handle, although you can choose a side-hinged door. The shipping weight, including the crate, is about 99kg.

The firing chamber measures 279mm x 610mm x 108mm high, and heats from the top and both sides with the elements in dropped recessed grooves in the 76mm thick bricks. The kiln has a silent long-life solid-state relay mounted on an aluminium heat-sink and a long-life nickel-chromium K-type thermocouple.

The programmer's electronic display prompts for heating rates, target temperatures, hold times, and cooling rates, making it easy to set up and re-use accurate heating, holding, and cooling sequences. An optional cone-fire mode, up to cone 10, will simplify any work with ceramics.


The accessories, options, and upgrades for this kiln are in the on-line shop:

List. a berry, blue, jade, navy, pink, purple, or turquoise respray: normally black
List. a side-hinged door: normally a drop-down: factory fitted
List. a programmer upgrade: Sentry 12-key to a Sentinel SmartTouch: factory fitted
List. a programmer upgrade from ramp-hold to cone-fire and ramp-hold: up to cone 10: factory fitted
List. a gas injection flow meter with a controlling solenoid: factory fitted
List. an electric kiln vent: factory fitted
List. an auxiliary power output for automatic vent control: factory fitted
List. a USB computer interface: factory fitted
List. a long-life S-type platinum-rhodium thermocouple upgrade: factory fitted
List. a knife-making kit: four blade holders with removable pins, eight holder-supports, and hot gloves
List. shelf kits and shelf paper
List. ceramic fibre cloth
List. ceramic block
List. HEPA dust mask
List. clear protective glasses
List. glare-resistant glasses
List. heat-resistant gloves

And finally, my opinion:

The KM24T XL is a professional, high-temperature, fully-programmable kiln, ideal for a blade workshop or an engineering facility making hunting knives, kitchen knives, and swords, and annealing, hardening, heat-treating, and tempering blades, cutters, dies, and tools. And you can work with ceramics and glass within the kiln's size limits. Just be sure that 610mm is deep enough and that a KM36T wouldn't be better.

The XL is twice the width of the regular KM furnaces so will hold twice as many blades or components, reducing the cost and time per item. And, as the internal diagonal dimension is 671mm, it will hold longer parts.

The Sentry 12-key digital programmer has advanced and time-saving features, including optional automatic control over an electric kiln vent, a gas injection system, and a USB computer interface. The similar Sentinel SmartTouch is an alternative.

THE PARAGON KM24T XL: KILN FURNITURE

The Paragon KM24T XL Kiln Furniture.

Experienced knife makers often make their own blade holders, holder-supports, and accessories, so there's no included kit. However, there's a getting-started recommended kit, not included in the price: four blade holders with removable pins, eight holder-supports, and a pair of heat-resistant gloves.

For annealing beads and glass, firing ceramics and porcelain, fusing dichroics, enamelling, heat treating, lampworking, or sintering metal clays, there's a recommended shelf kit, not included in the price: one durable 179mm x 179mm x 15mm cordierite shelf, four 12mm shelf posts, and 450gm of glass separator. This kiln has room for two shelves, one behind the other.

THE PARAGON KM24T PRO KILN KNIFE-MAKING, HEAT-TREATING, BLADES, TOOLS, ANNEALING, CERAMICS, AND GLASS

The Paragon KM24T Pro 3-Zone Furnace For Making Knives, Blades, Cutters, Dies, Tools, Model Parts, And Gun Components, Annealing, Heat-Treating Metals, And General Glass Work.

Paragon KM24T Pro Knife-Making Kiln With A Sentry Programmer. Paragon KM24T Pro Knife-Making Oven With A Sentry Programmer. Bartlett-Paragon Sentinel Touch Screen Programmer.

The Paragon KM24T PRO is a 1290°C, rectangular, wired-in, front-opening, table-top, ceramic fibre oven, with a ramp-hold Sentinel Smart Touch digital programmer. Choose Paragon black or customised berry, blue, jade, navy, pink, purple, or turquoise.


Paragon's kiln names often use a suffixed number to represent one or more of the internal dimensions in inches. For this kiln, 24 means that the inside is about 24 inches deep.


This is a 5-star luxury kiln with a stainless-steel spring-assisted guillotine door, a high-power fast-heat ceramic-fibre interior, 3-zone temperature control, and a Sentinel SmartTouch programmer with advanced and time-saving features.

The UK-EU kiln is rated at 230V-240V 6960W, so it needs a 29A minimum wired-in power supply. To comply with EU safety regulations, it's fitted with a switch that cuts off the power to the elements when the kiln is opened: an important safety feature. However, never get careless: kilns are very hot and connected to the mains.

The external dimensions are 368mm x 813mm x 457mm high. The standard guillotine door is spring-assisted on both sides for easy one-handed opening, although you can choose a counter-balanced drop-down or a side-hinged door. The shipping weight, including the crate, is about 121kg.

The firing chamber measures 165mm x 610mm x 133mm high, and heats from both sides with the elements embedded in the surface of the 64mm thick fibre. The kiln has three silent long-life solid-state relays mounted on an aluminium heat-sink and three long-life nickel-chromium K-type thermocouples.

The programmer's electronic display prompts for heating rates, target temperatures, hold times, and cooling rates, making it easy to set up and re-use accurate heating, holding, and cooling sequences. An optional cone-fire mode, up to cone 10, will simplify any work with ceramics.


The accessories, options, and upgrades for this kiln are in the on-line shop:

List. a berry, blue, jade, navy, pink, purple, or turquoise respray: normally black
List. a side-hinged or drop-down door: normally a guillotine: factory fitted
List. a programmer upgrade from ramp-hold to cone-fire and ramp-hold: up to cone 10: factory fitted
List. a gas injection flow meter with a controlling solenoid: needs 12-key or touch: factory fitted
List. an electric kiln vent: factory fitted
List. an auxiliary power output for automatic vent control: needs 12-key or touch: factory fitted
List. a USB computer interface: needs 12-key or touch: factory fitted
List. a three-zone long-life S-type platinum-rhodium thermocouple upgrade: factory fitted
List. a knife-making kit: four blade holders with removable pins, eight holder-supports, and hot gloves
List. shelf kits and shelf paper
List. ceramic fibre cloth
List. ceramic block
List. HEPA dust mask
List. clear protective glasses
List. glare-resistant glasses
List. heat-resistant gloves

And finally, my opinion:

The KM24T Pro is a design classic, made for precision work that needs reliable and stable temperatures. The lightweight rigidised ceramic-fibre interior has closely-spaced wave-shaped elements embedded in the surface of the fibre, giving a more even heat distribution than conventional coiled elements in firebrick.

The Sentinel SmartTouch programmer has advanced and time-saving features, including optional automatic control over an electric kiln vent, a gas injection system, and a USB computer interface.

The KM24T Pro is 25mm higher inside than the regular KM24T but, as it has a power rating 2.68 times higher, it heats up more quickly and has a faster response time during the hold segments of the firing sequence, minimising any residual heat temperature fluctuations as the elements turn on and off.

The elements are switched on and off by the touch-screen programmer and three silent long-life solid-state relays mounted on an aluminium heat-sink. These have no moving parts and the inputs and outputs are electrically and mechanically isolated.

The stainless-steel spring-assisted guillotine door is counter-balanced for easy one-handed operation. It actuates a switch that cuts off the power to the elements when the kiln is opened so you can't touch anything live.

There are three thermocouples spaced along the top, so the touch-screen programmer is aware of any temperature gradients and can use its 3-zone feature to maintain accurate and consistent temperatures throughout the kiln.

It's a professional, high-temperature, fully-programmable kiln, ideal for a blade workshop or an engineering facility. And you can work with ceramics and glass within its size limits. Just be sure that 610mm is deep enough and that a KM36T or the KM36T Pro wouldn't be better.

THE PARAGON KM24T PRO: KILN FURNITURE

The Paragon KM24T Pro Kiln Furniture.

Experienced knife makers often make their own blade holders, holder-supports, and accessories, so there's no included kit. However, there's a getting-started recommended kit, not included in the price: four blade holders with removable pins, eight holder-supports, and a pair of heat-resistant gloves.

For annealing beads and glass, firing ceramics and porcelain, fusing dichroics, enamelling, heat treating, lampworking, or sintering metal clays, there's a recommended shelf kit, not included in the price: one durable 125mm x 125mm x 15mm cordierite shelf, four 12mm shelf posts, and 450gm of glass separator. This kiln has room for three shelves, one behind the other.

THE PARAGON KM36T KILN KNIFE-MAKING, HEAT-TREATING, BLADES, TOOLS, ANNEALING, CERAMICS, AND GLASS

The Paragon KM36D Furnace For Making Knives, Blades, Cutters, Dies, Tools, Model Parts, And Gun Components, Annealing, Heat-Treating Metals, And General Glass Work.

Paragon KM36T Knife-Making Kiln With A Sentry Xpress Programmer. Paragon KM36T Knife-Making Furnace With A Sentry Xpress Programmer. Orton-Paragon Sentry Xpress Programmer. Orton-Paragon Sentry Controller.

The Paragon KM36T is a 1290°C, rectangular, wired-in, front-opening, table-top, firebrick furnace, with a ramp-hold Sentry Xpress 3-key digital programmer. Choose Paragon black or customised berry, blue, jade, navy, pink, purple, or turquoise.


Paragon's kiln names often use a suffixed number to represent one or more of the internal dimensions in inches. For this kiln, 36 means that the inside is about 36 inches deep.


The UK-EU kiln is rated at 230V-240V 3600W, so needs a 16A minimum wired-in power supply. To comply with EU safety regulations, it's fitted with a switch that cuts off the power to the elements when the kiln is opened: an important safety feature. However, never get careless: kilns are very hot and connected to the mains.

The external dimensions are 432mm x 1245mm x 432mm high. The standard drop-down door is hinged on the bottom and kept closed by a counter-balanced handle, although you can choose a side-hinged door. The shipping weight, including the crate, is about 80kg.

The firing chamber measures 140mm x 914mm x 108mm high, and heats from the top and both sides with the element in dropped recessed grooves in the 76mm thick bricks. The kiln has a silent long-life solid-state relay mounted on an aluminium heat-sink and a long-life nickel-chromium K-type thermocouple.

The programmer's electronic display prompts for heating rates, target temperatures, hold times, and cooling rates, making it easy to set up and re-use accurate heating, holding, and cooling sequences. An optional cone-fire mode, up to cone 10, will simplify any work with ceramics.


The accessories, options, and upgrades for this kiln are in the on-line shop:

List. a berry, blue, jade, navy, pink, purple, or turquoise respray: normally black
List. a side-hinged door: normally a drop-down: factory fitted
List. a programmer upgrade: Sentry Xpress 3-key to a Sentry 12-key: more useful features: factory fitted
List. a programmer upgrade: Sentry Xpress 3-key to a Sentinel SmartTouch: more useful features: factory fitted
List. a programmer upgrade from ramp-hold to cone-fire and ramp-hold: up to cone 10: factory fitted
List. a gas injection flow meter with a controlling solenoid: needs 12-key or touch: factory fitted
List. an electric kiln vent: factory fitted
List. an auxiliary power output for automatic vent control: needs 12-key or touch: factory fitted
List. a USB computer interface: needs 12-key or touch: factory fitted
List. a long-life S-type platinum-rhodium thermocouple upgrade: factory fitted
List. a knife-making kit: four blade holders with removable pins, eight holder-supports, and hot gloves
List. shelf kits and shelf paper
List. ceramic fibre cloth
List. ceramic block
List. HEPA dust mask
List. clear protective glasses
List. glare-resistant glasses
List. heat-resistant gloves

And finally, my opinion:

The KM36T is a professional, high-temperature, fully-programmable kiln, ideal for a blade workshop or a technical facility making blades, ceremonial swords, engineering components, and gun barrels, and annealing, hardening, heat-treating, and tempering blades, cutters, dies, and tools. And you can work with ceramics and glass within the kiln's size limits. Just be sure that 914mm is deep enough and that a KM45T wouldn't be better.

The elements are switched on and off by the programmer and a silent long-life solid-state relay mounted on an aluminium heat-sink. This has no moving parts and the inputs and outputs are electrically and mechanically isolated.

The programmer can be upgraded from a Sentry Xpress 3-key to a Sentry 12-key or a Sentinel SmartTouch. Both have advanced and time-saving features, including optional automatic control over an electric kiln vent, a gas injection system, and a USB computer interface.

THE PARAGON KM36T: KILN FURNITURE

The Paragon KM36T Kiln Furniture.

Experienced knife makers often make their own blade holders, holder-supports, and accessories, so there's no included kit. However, there's a getting-started recommended kit, not included in the price: four blade holders with removable pins, eight holder-supports, and a pair of heat-resistant gloves.

For annealing beads and glass, firing ceramics and porcelain, fusing dichroics, enamelling, heat treating, lampworking, or sintering metal clays, there's a recommended shelf kit, not included in the price: one durable 125mm x 125mm x 15mm cordierite shelf, four 12mm shelf posts, and 450gm of glass separator. This kiln has room for three shelves, one behind the other: more than three might make them difficult to put in and take out.

THE PARAGON KM36T PRO KILN KNIFE-MAKING, HEAT-TREATING, BLADES, TOOLS, ANNEALING, CERAMICS, AND GLASS

The Paragon KM36T Pro 3-Zone Furnace For Making Knives, Blades, Cutters, Dies, Tools, Model Parts, And Gun Components, Annealing, Heat-Treating Metals, And General Glass Work.

Paragon KM36T Pro Knife-Making Kiln With A Sentry Programmer. Paragon KM36T Pro Knife-Making Oven With A Sentry Programmer. Bartlett-Paragon Sentinel Touch Screen Programmer.

The Paragon KM36T PRO is a 1290°C, rectangular, wired-in, front-opening, table-top, ceramic-fibre oven, with a ramp-hold Sentinel Smart Touch digital programmer. Choose Paragon black or customised berry, blue, jade, navy, pink, purple, or turquoise.


Paragon's kiln names often use a suffixed number to represent one or more of the internal dimensions in inches. For this kiln, 36 means that the inside is about 36 inches deep.


This is a 5-star luxury kiln with a stainless-steel spring-assisted guillotine door, a high-power fast-heat ceramic-fibre interior, 3-zone temperature control, and a Sentinel SmartTouch programmer with advanced and time-saving features.

The UK-EU kiln is rated at 230V-240V 10100W, so it needs a 42A minimum wired-in power supply. To comply with EU safety regulations, it's fitted with a switch that cuts off the power to the elements when the kiln is opened: an important safety feature. However, never get careless: kilns are very hot and connected to the mains.

The external dimensions are 368mm x 1270mm x 457mm high. The standard guillotine door is spring-assisted on both sides for easy one-handed opening, although you can choose a counter-balanced drop-down or a side-hinged door. The shipping weight, including the crate, is about 159kg.

The firing chamber measures 165mm x 914mm x 133mm high, and heats from both sides with the elements embedded in the surface of the 64mm thick fibre. The kiln has three silent long-life solid-state relays mounted on an aluminium heat-sink and three long-life nickel-chromium K-type thermocouples.

The programmer's electronic display prompts for heating rates, target temperatures, hold times, and cooling rates, making it easy to set up and re-use accurate heating, holding, and cooling sequences. An optional cone-fire mode, up to cone 10, will simplify any work with ceramics.


The accessories, options, and upgrades for this kiln are in the on-line shop:

List. a berry, blue, jade, navy, pink, purple, or turquoise respray: normally black
List. a side-hinged or drop-down door: normally a guillotine: factory fitted
List. a programmer upgrade from ramp-hold to cone-fire and ramp-hold: up to cone 10: factory fitted
List. a gas injection flow meter with a controlling solenoid: needs 12-key or touch: factory fitted
List. an electric kiln vent: factory fitted
List. an auxiliary power output for automatic vent control: needs 12-key or touch: factory fitted
List. a USB computer interface: needs 12-key or touch: factory fitted
List. a three-zone long-life S-type platinum-rhodium thermocouple upgrade: factory fitted
List. a knife-making kit: four blade holders with removable pins, eight holder-supports, and hot gloves
List. shelf kits and shelf paper
List. ceramic fibre cloth
List. ceramic block
List. HEPA dust mask
List. clear protective glasses
List. glare-resistant glasses
List. heat-resistant gloves

And finally, my opinion:

The KM36T Pro is a design classic, made for precision work that needs reliable and stable temperatures. The lightweight rigidised ceramic-fibre interior has closely-spaced wave-shaped elements embedded in the surface of the fibre, giving a more even heat distribution than conventional coiled elements in firebrick.

The Sentinel SmartTouch programmer has advanced and time-saving features, including optional automatic control over an electric kiln vent, a gas injection system, and a USB computer interface.

The KM36T Pro is 25mm higher inside than the regular KM36T but, as it has a power rating 2.81 times higher, it heats up more quickly and has a faster response time during the hold segments of the firing sequence, minimising any residual heat temperature fluctuations as the elements turn on and off.

The elements are switched on and off by the touch-screen programmer and three silent long-life solid-state relays mounted on an aluminium heat-sink. These have no moving parts and the inputs and outputs are electrically and mechanically isolated.

The stainless-steel spring-assisted guillotine door is counter-balanced for easy one-handed operation. It actuates a switch that cuts off the power to the elements when the kiln is opened so you can't touch anything live.

There are three thermocouples spaced along the top, so the touch-screen programmer is aware of any temperature gradients and can use its 3-zone feature to maintain accurate and consistent temperatures throughout the kiln.

It's a professional, high-temperature, fully-programmable kiln, ideal for a blade workshop or an engineering facility. And you can work with ceramics and glass within its size limits. Just be sure that 914mm is deep enough and that a KM45T wouldn't be better.

THE PARAGON KM36T PRO: KILN FURNITURE

The Paragon KM36T Pro Kiln Furniture.

Experienced knife makers often make their own blade holders, holder-supports, and accessories, so there's no included kit. However, there's a getting-started recommended kit, not included in the price: four blade holders with removable pins, eight holder-supports, and a pair of heat-resistant gloves.

For annealing beads and glass, firing ceramics and porcelain, fusing dichroics, enamelling, heat treating, lampworking, or sintering metal clays, there's a recommended shelf kit, not included in the price: one durable 125mm x 125mm x 15mm cordierite shelf, four 12mm shelf posts, and 450gm of glass separator. This kiln has room for two shelves, one behind the other.

THE PARAGON KM45T KILN KNIFE-MAKING, HEAT-TREATING, BLADES, TOOLS, ANNEALING, CERAMICS, AND GLASS

The Paragon KM45D Furnace For Making Knives, Blades, Cutters, Dies, Tools, Model Parts, And Gun Components, Annealing, Heat-Treating Metals, And General Glass Work.

Paragon KM45T Knife-Making Kiln With A Sentry Programmer. Paragon KM45T Knife-Making Furnace With A Sentry Programmer. Orton-Paragon Sentry Controller. Bartlett-Paragon Sentinel Touch Screen Programmer.

The Paragon KM45T is a 1290°C, rectangular, wired-in, front-opening, table-top, firebrick furnace, with a ramp-hold Sentry 12-key digital programmer. Choose Paragon black or customised berry, blue, jade, navy, pink, purple, or turquoise.


Paragon's kiln names often use a suffixed number to represent one or more of the internal dimensions in inches. For this kiln, 45 means that the inside is about 45 inches deep.


The UK-EU kiln is rated at 230V-240V 4560W, so needs a 19A minimum wired-in power supply. To comply with EU safety regulations, it's fitted with a switch that cuts off the power to the elements when the kiln is opened: an important safety feature. However, never get careless: kilns are very hot and connected to the mains.

The external dimensions are 432mm x 1473mm x 432mm high. The standard drop-down door is hinged on the bottom and kept closed by a counter-balanced handle, although you can choose a side-hinged door. The shipping weight, including the crate, is about 116kg.

The firing chamber measures 140mm x 1143mm x 108mm high, and heats from the top and both sides with the element in dropped recessed grooves in the 76mm thick bricks. The kiln has a silent long-life solid-state relay mounted on an aluminium heat-sink and a long-life nickel-chromium K-type thermocouple.

The programmer's electronic display prompts for heating rates, target temperatures, hold times, and cooling rates, making it easy to set up and re-use accurate heating, holding, and cooling sequences. An optional cone-fire mode, up to cone 10, will simplify any work with ceramics.


The accessories, options, and upgrades for this kiln are in the on-line shop:

List. a berry, blue, jade, navy, pink, purple, or turquoise respray: normally black
List. a side-hinged door: normally a drop-down: factory fitted
List. a programmer upgrade from a Sentry 12-key to a Sentinel SmartTouch: factory fitted
List. a programmer upgrade from ramp-hold to cone-fire and ramp-hold: up to cone 10: factory fitted
List. a gas injection flow meter with a controlling solenoid: factory fitted
List. an electric kiln vent: factory fitted
List. an auxiliary power output for automatic vent control: factory fitted
List. a USB computer interface: factory fitted
List. a long-life S-type platinum-rhodium thermocouple upgrade: factory fitted
List. a knife-making kit: four blade holders with removable pins, eight holder-supports, and hot gloves
List. shelf kits and shelf paper
List. ceramic fibre cloth
List. ceramic block
List. HEPA dust mask
List. clear protective glasses
List. glare-resistant glasses
List. heat-resistant gloves

And finally, my opinion:

The KM45T is a professional, high-temperature, fully-programmable kiln, ideal for a blade workshop or a technical facility making blades, ceremonial swords, engineering components, and gun barrels, and annealing, hardening, heat-treating, and tempering blades, cutters, dies, and tools. And you can work with ceramics and glass within the kiln's size limits.

The elements are switched on and off by the programmer and a silent long-life solid-state relay mounted on an aluminium heat-sink. This has no moving parts and the inputs and outputs are electrically and mechanically isolated.

The Sentry 12-key digital programmer has advanced and time-saving features, including optional automatic control over an electric kiln vent, a gas injection system, and a USB computer interface. The similar Sentinel SmartTouch is an alternative.

THE PARAGON KM45T: KILN FURNITURE

The Paragon KM45T Kiln Furniture.

Experienced knife makers often make their own blade holders, holder-supports, and accessories, so there's no included kit. However, there's a getting-started recommended kit, not included in the price: four blade holders with removable pins, eight holder-supports, and a pair of heat-resistant gloves.

For annealing beads and glass, firing ceramics and porcelain, fusing dichroics, enamelling, heat treating, lampworking, or sintering metal clays, there's a recommended shelf kit, not included in the price: one durable 125mm x 125mm x 15mm cordierite shelf, four 12mm shelf posts, and 450gm of glass separator. This kiln has room for three shelves, one behind the other: more than three might make them difficult to put in and take out.

RECOMMENDED READING
General Help and FAQs For Kilns. Paragon Kiln Shelf Kit. Paragon Relay. Paragon Transformer.

Kilns, Digital Programmers, Kiln Furniture, Options, Upgrades, Firing, Kiln Logs, Accessories, Materials, Parts, Processes, Repairs, And Tools.

The remaining sections are about digital programmers, shelf kits, options, upgrades, firing, kiln logs, accessories, materials, parts, processes, repairs, and tools. Unless you're already successfully using a kiln, they're recommended reading.


Cherry Heaven has been a Paragon distributor since 2002, and commended every year for outstanding performance. Paragon kilns are good value: buy Paragons and you could save enough to treat yourself to a luxury five-star weekend break.

Anyone can buy a kiln to resell and call themselves a specialist, but a top-tier distributor understands all the kilns, options, and upgrades, will stock spares, offers free competent technical support, can help you repair your kiln, provides on-line repair videos, has a repair workshop, and can access Paragon's extensive knowledge-base.

If you need help, you can mail an experienced technician or call . Alternatively, to learn more about how your kiln works, use the help link below the menu bar near the top of the page.

A BRIEF INTRODUCTION TO MAKING KNIVES
Knife Blade. Knife Blade Supports. 321 Stainless Steel Foil. Kitiki Heat Resistant Gloves.

Steels And Knife Making.

Steels are alloys of iron and carbon, generally described as mild steel, medium-carbon steel, or high-carbon steel, according to the percentage of carbon. Adding other elements such as chromium, manganese, nickel, tungsten, and vanadium change the characteristics of the metal.

There are over 3500 types of steel, most of which have been developed during the last 25 years. If the Eiffel Tower were to be built today, it would only need one-third of the steel that was originally used.

Making knife blades involves many different types of high-carbon steel and a series of forming, heating, cooling, and finishing processes. Knife-making kilns come with a heat treating manual, although professional knife-makers usually adapt the processes and develop their own techniques.


During heat treating, oxygen combines with the steel to form a scale on the surface of the blades. To minimise this, they're either wrapped in heat-treating foil or an inert gas can be injected into the furnace to displace the oxygen.

Some knife-makers use 321 stainless steel foil to wrap the blades, mimicking a vacuum furnace. The foil needs to be removed before quenching the steel in oil.

Others use a water-based coating. The steel part can be painted, sprayed, or dipped then allowed to dry before beginning the heat treatment. On cooling, it will crumble off and the steel parts can be rinsed clean under water. It's important to ensure that parts are clean of oil and greases before applying the coating.

Most professional knife makers use a kiln with gas injection for precise control and to save time. The Sentry 12-key and the Sentinel SmartTouch programmers can use an additional solenoid kit which can automatically turn the gas on or off for each segment of the firing: just programme the controller to turn on the gas at the temperature where scale begins to form on the steel.

Argon gas is popular for heat treating because it's inexpensive. But, it's heavier than air and breathing it in won't keep you alive: so your workshop must be well ventilated.

HARDENING STEEL

Hardening Steel.

Steel is already hard, but can be made much harder by heating it to a hardening temperature and them soaking it at that temperature. The temperature and time depend on the steel and the result you want. Hardness is measured using Rockwell testing.

QUENCHING

Quenching Steel.

After hardening, steel is quenched by cooling it in air, water, or oil, otherwise the steel would lose most of its hardness. The way in which quenching is done is vital.

TEMPERING

Tempering Steel.

After quenching, most steel is tempered, another heating and cooling process, to relieve stresses, otherwise it can be too brittle for repeated use.

FREE HEAT TREATING GUIDE

Heat Treating Guide.

You can download, and print, a Heat Treating Guide. Paragon created it in 2005 so, although it might have been updated, it's only a guide, not a contemporary definitive document. Click here. It's a pdf file, but your device should already have a pdf viewer.

THE PARAGON SENTRY XPRESS 4.0 3-KEY DIGITAL PROGRAMMER
Orton-Paragon Sentry Xpress 4.0 Programmer. Orton-Paragon Sentry Xpress 4.0 Programmer PCB. Orton-Paragon Sentry 2.0 Programmer. Bartlett-Paragon Sentinel SmartTouch Controller.

The Orton-Paragon Sentry Xpress 4.0 3-Key Digital Controller.

Before February 2019, Paragon used three programmers: a Sentry Xpress 4.0 3-key or a Sentry 2.0 12-key developed by the Orton Ceramic Foundation and Paragon, or a Sentinel SmartTouch touch-screen programmer developed by Bartlett and Paragon.

In February 2019, two were modified, leading to the Sentry Xpress 5.0 3-key and the Sentry 3.0 12-key. The modifications had little effect on the basic functionality so kilns might ship with the older programmers for some time.

All three are made as ramp-hold, or cone-fire ramp-hold. Your kiln will have the appropriate programmer although, if it has a Sentry Xpress 4.0 ramp-hold, you can upgrade it to cone-fire ramp-hold. If the kiln's front panel is large enough, you can upgrade from a Sentry Xpress 3-key to a Sentry 12-key or a Sentinel SmartTouch.

Generally, programmers for annealing beads, enamelling, glass fusing, jewellery, knife-making, lampwork, and metal clays have one firing mode: ramp-hold. And programmers for ceramics, earthenware, porcelain, and stoneware have two firing modes: cone-fire and ramp-hold.


Unlike calculators, programmers aren't made 10 million at a time. Although they look like simple circuit boards, they include sophisticated feature-rich embedded software that has taken years to develop and refine.


The Paragon Sentry Xpress 4.0 3-key programmer allows you to set up four ramp-hold firing sequences, each one with up to eight heating, holding, or cooling segments. You can choose the heating and cooling rates, target temperatures, and hold times, save the sequences, and re-use them.

It's easy to use: far easier than a central heating programmer. Here's a Cherry Heaven TV programme about setting a simple ramp-hold sequence. The ramp is the part where the temperature increases until it reaches the target temperature: the hold is the part where the temperature stays the same. UK-EU programmers will be in degrees Celsius.


Cherry Heaven TV provides on-line programmes on the Cherry Heaven TV Player. To use the player, click the controls or drag the time-line slider or volume slider to a new position.


00:00  00:00

The programmer runs a sequence that you have set, or one that's in its memory from a previous firing. A sequence usually has a mix of ramp and hold segments, for example: it could heat to 800°C at full speed then hold for 30 minutes. When the sequence ends, the programmer beeps, and the kiln cools in it's own time.

A ramp segment of a sequence can control the rate of heating or cooling, for example: the kiln could heat up at 200°C per hour from 200°C to 800°C, which would take three hours. Or, the kiln could cool down at 100°C per hour from 600°C to 200°C, which would take four hours.

The heating rate cannot exceed the rate at which the kiln would heat up if it was full on. The cooling rate cannot exceed the rate at which the kiln would cool if it was turned off. At full speed the elements are on all the time. During set ramps and holds they turn on and off repeatedly to maintain the heating rate, hold temperature, or cooling rate.

THE PARAGON SENTRY 2.0 12-KEY DIGITAL PROGRAMMER
Orton-Paragon Sentry Xpress 4.0 Programmer. Orton-Paragon Sentry Xpress 4.0 Programmer PCB. Orton-Paragon Sentry 2.0 Programmer. Bartlett-Paragon Sentinel SmartTouch Controller.

The Orton-Paragon Sentry 2.0 12-Key Digital Controller.

Before February 2019, Paragon used three programmers: a Sentry Xpress 4.0 3-key or a Sentry 2.0 12-key developed by the Orton Ceramic Foundation and Paragon, or a Sentinel SmartTouch touch-screen programmer developed by Bartlett and Paragon.

In February 2019, two were modified, leading to the Sentry Xpress 5.0 3-key and the Sentry 3.0 12-key. The modifications had little effect on the basic functionality so kilns might ship with the older programmers for some time.

All three are made as ramp-hold, or cone-fire ramp-hold. Your kiln will have the appropriate programmer although, if it has a Sentry Xpress 4.0 ramp-hold, you can upgrade it to cone-fire ramp-hold. If the kiln's front panel is large enough, you can upgrade from a Sentry Xpress 3-key to a Sentry 12-key or a Sentinel SmartTouch.

Generally, programmers for annealing beads, enamelling, glass fusing, jewellery, knife-making, lampwork, and metal clays have one firing mode: ramp-hold. And programmers for ceramics, earthenware, porcelain, and stoneware have two firing modes: cone-fire and ramp-hold.


Unlike calculators, programmers aren't made 10 million at a time. Although they look like simple circuit boards, they include sophisticated feature-rich embedded software that has taken years to develop and refine.


The Paragon Sentry 2.0 12-key digital programmer allows you to set up nine ramp-hold firing sequences, each one with up to ten heating, holding, or cooling segments. You can choose the heating and cooling rates, target temperatures, and hold times, save the sequences, and re-use them. It also offers advanced and time-saving features, including optional automatic control over an electric kiln vent, a gas injection system, and a USB computer interface.

It's easy to use: far easier than a central heating programmer. Here's a Cherry Heaven TV programme about setting a simple ramp-hold sequence. The ramp is the part where the temperature increases until it reaches the target temperature: the hold is the part where the temperature stays the same. UK-EU programmers will be in degrees Celsius.


Cherry Heaven TV provides on-line programmes on the Cherry Heaven TV Player. To use the player, click the controls or drag the time-line slider or volume slider to a new position.


00:00  00:00

The programmer runs a sequence that you have set, or one that's in its memory from a previous firing. A sequence usually has a mix of ramp and hold segments, for example: it could heat to 800°C at full speed then hold for 30 minutes. When the sequence ends, the programmer beeps, and the kiln cools in it's own time.

A ramp segment of a sequence can control the rate of heating or cooling, for example: the kiln could heat up at 200°C per hour from 200°C to 800°C, which would take three hours. Or, the kiln could cool down at 100°C per hour from 600°C to 200°C, which would take four hours.

The heating rate cannot exceed the rate at which the kiln would heat up if it was full on. The cooling rate cannot exceed the rate at which the kiln would cool if it was turned off. At full speed the elements are on all the time. During set ramps and holds they turn on and off repeatedly to maintain the heating rate, hold temperature, or cooling rate.

THE PARAGON SENTINEL SMART-TOUCH DIGITAL PROGRAMMER
Bartlett-Paragon Sentinel SmartTouch Touch-Screen Programmer.

The Bartlett-Paragon Sentinel SmartTouch Touch-Screen Digital Controller.

The Paragon Sentinel SmartTouch touch screen digital programmer allows you to set up firing sequences, each one with up to thirty two heating, holding, or cooling segments. You can choose the heating and cooling rates, target temperatures, and hold times, save the sequences, and re-use them. It also offers advanced and time-saving features, including optional automatic control over an electric kiln vent, a gas injection system, and a USB computer interface.

It's easy to use: far easier than a central heating programmer. Here's a Cherry Heaven TV programme about using it. The ramp is the part where the temperature increases until it reaches the target temperature: the hold is the part where the temperature stays the same. UK-EU programmers will be in degrees Celsius.


Cherry Heaven TV provides on-line radio and television programmes on the Cherry Heaven TV Player. To use the player, click the controls or drag the time-line slider or volume slider to a new position.


00:00  00:00
KILN FURNITURE: A GENERAL INTRODUCTION IMPORTANT
Paragon Kiln Shelf Kit. Paragon Rectangular Kiln Shelves. Paragon Round Kiln Shelves. Paragon Mixed Kiln Shelves.

Kiln Furniture: Rectangular, Round, Hexagonal, and Octagonal Shelves, And Posts.

Most kilns have a recommended furniture kit. Delivery companies have a low rate for parcels less than 30kg so, for smaller kilns weighing less than 30Kg, the kit is generally one shelf and four posts: included in the price because it fits in the box and doesn't add much to the overall weight.

You get a professional, durable, cordierite shelf with four 12mm high posts. You don't get a soft, ceramic-fibre shelf, often described as free, that will gradually break up and need replacing.

Shelf kits for rectangular or square kilns usually include four 25mm x 25mm x 12mm shelf posts, When flat, they're 12mm high: on their sides, they're 25mm. Other sizes, up to 150mm high, are available, so you can choose the shelf spacing that suits your kiln and your work. Shelves for cylindrical kilns usually have three posts.

The recommended kit is usually the simplest that works: not an expensive collection that I've put together for you. However, extra shelf kits allow you to stack your work, optimising your use of the firing chamber volume, the unit-cost of firing, and your time. And extra half-shelves or smaller shelves allow you to fire a mix of shorter and taller pieces.


For larger kilns weighing more than 30Kg, shelf kits are not included in the price because you'll probably want to choose your own mix of shelves, half-shelves, smaller shelves, and assorted-height posts.


One shelf should stay on the floor of the firing chamber all the time in case you accidentally spill or melt anything: solidified glass or metal is impossible to pick off without damaging the ceramic-fibre or firebrick.

Shelves are not meant to be an exact fit in the kiln. You need finger space all round and they mustn't scrape the kiln walls every time they're put in or taken out. Be careful lifting heavy shelves out of a top-opening kiln: if you drop them they will damage the firebricks.

Although they look tough, most ceramics break if they're dropped on a hard floor, so it's a good idea to have spare shelves, especially if your business depends on your kiln or you're running courses.


During firing sequences with heating, holding, and cooling segments, the elements turn on and off repeatedly. In a small kiln, with little residual heat, the inevitable temperature changes can make glass crack as it expands and contracts. A thick heavy shelf stores heat and, because it's resting on posts, the air circulates, helping to even out the normal temperature fluctuations.


If you're buying your first kiln, you're probably interested in one material, such as silver clay, or one process, such as enamelling. However, after a few successes, and failures, most people want to try different materials, make larger pieces, experiment with combinations, fire more at a time, and soon become interested in something else: or everything else. Some start a business or run classes.

You might want a full shelf, two half-shelves, several mixed shelves, a set of shelf posts, a bead-mandrel holder, glass separator, hot gloves, kiln wash, a knife-making rack, pyrometric cones, a tile holder, or other accessories.

Shelves are heavy, so kits ordered separately need a box and protective packing and attract an extra delivery charge. Outside the UK mainland, this might be expensive. So, if you think you'll need them, order them with your kiln, along with any other accessories, materials, parts, or tools.


For dichroics, enamelling, and glass fusing, put kiln paper on the shelf to stop the glass sticking: it's simpler and cleaner to use than glass separator. Bullseye Thinfire shelf paper, probably the most popular, ensures easy separation between your glass and the kiln shelf. One side feels slightly smoother than the other: that's the glass side.

Generally, glasswork needs radiant heat and will fuse, sag, or slump better on one shelf than between closely stacked shelves, although experienced glass artists often use several shelves successfully.

Delicate pieces can be fired on a puffed-up ceramic-fibre cloth: on a shelf. Round pieces, that could roll to one side, can be fired on a hollowed-out ceramic-fibre block. However, if the kin has elements in the bottom as with the Mini-Kiln and Prometheus Pro-7, a cloth or block will act as insulator and the kiln might overheat.

Particulates represent a health risk if they're breathed in, so wear a HEPA mask when cleaning out your kiln, mixing kiln wash, and working with ceramic-fibre blocks, ceramic cloths, and papers. And, ideally, use protective glasses.

If you want to touch anything hot, or move your kiln before it's cooled off, it's important to wear heat-resistant gloves. And, if you want to look into a red-hot kiln, even briefly, wear glare-resistant glasses to protect your eyes from IR and UV.


If your day-to-day work depends on your kiln and down-time will be disruptive or expensive, it's a good idea to have spares: extra shelves, a selection of posts, elements, a relay, and a thermocouple.

You can learn about ceramic blocks and cloths, charcoal, dust masks, glare-resistant glasses, glass separator, heat-resistant gloves, kiln vents, kiln wash, programmers, protective glasses, USB interfaces, shelf paper, tools, and other accessories, using the accessories link below the menu bar near the top of the front page. And they're all in the on-line shop.


Shelves are checked before despatch and are wrapped protectively. But they're not guaranteed and we cannot be responsible for any later damage.

OPTIONS AND UPGRADES: A GENERAL INTRODUCTION
Paragon Xpress E9A Jewellery Kiln With A Sentry Xpress Programmer: Purple. Paragon Bead Door. Paragon Door Window. Paragon Solid State Relay.

Options And Upgrades.

It's important to learn about options and upgrades now as some have to be factory-fitted. The photo shows a Paragon Xpress E9A customised for a PMC silver clay studio: purple, with the maximum temperature set to 925°C so that students couldn't accidentally melt their silver.


An option is cosmetic or practical, such as a black respray, a right-hand door hinge, a peephole-vent, a bead-annealing door, a door or lid viewing window, or an EU plug.

An upgrade extends the standard specifications, such as a higher maximum temperature, a 3-key to a 12-key programmer, an electric kiln vent, a gas injection control system, an auxilliary power output, or a USB computer interface.

Not every option or upgrade applies to every kiln, so mail or call if you need help. However, if they're appropriate, they're listed in the on-line shop, so just add up the ones you want: but order them with your kiln as they're often difficult, expensive, or impossible, to implement afterwards. It might help if you make a few notes of your own as you read?


Kilns use regular single-phase 230V-240V mains so have 230V EU elements, not 120V US elements. The smaller kilns have UK 13A three-pin plugs: so they're ready to go. If you're not in the UK, use a plug adapter or cut off the UK plug and fit your own: it won't invalidate the guarantee. Alternatively, a special-order kiln can have a factory-fitted EU plug.

Most kilns can be re-engineered for 110V, 200V, 208V, or 220V, single phase or three phase, or 440V three phase. If you're interested, mail or call.


Although standard EU and US kilns have the same maximum temperature, set by the design and the programmer, some 1095°C firebrick kilns can be re-engineered to run at 1230°C, 1260°C, or 1290°C, making them versatile mixed-media kilns. However, to use 1290°C full-on hour after hour, choose an industrial or professional model.

Also, to maintain 1290°C, some upgraded kilns might need thicker firebricks, so they'll be slightly smaller inside: about 12mm on each side. Mail or call if you're interested, or need help deciding.

The UK factory-set maximum temperature is based on a reliable average voltage of 240V. If there's a regional, national, or temporary voltage drop, high-temperature kilns might take longer to reach their specified maximum or not reach it.


Some kilns are normally blue, but can be factory-painted berry, black, jade, navy, pink, purple, or turquoise. However, as they're made to order, they can't be returned if the colour isn't exactly the same as in the photo.

Changing the door hinge might be better if your kiln is in the corner of your studio or there's an obstacle that will make access difficult. Give this some thought.

Most of the medium-size top-opening kilns have a standard lift-up lid. Firebrick lids seem heavy to some people so, if you feel that a ceramic fibre lid, a hydraulic-assisted lid, or spring-assisted lid would be easier, mail or call.


If the kiln comes with a Sentry Xpress 3-Key ramp-hold programmer, you can upgrade to a Sentry Xpress 3-Key cone-fire ramp-hold programmer, usually preferred for ceramics. Cone-fire is implemented in the programmer's software and is very easy to use: just set a cone number and start the firing sequence.

Depending on the kiln, you can upgrade a Sentry Xpress 3-key programmer to a Sentry 12-Key ten segment ramp-hold, or cone-fire ramp-hold, programmer, with advanced firing features and connection options. The 3-key has a 12-month guarantee and the 12-key has a 30-month guarantee.

A Sentry 12-key programmer can be connected to your computer through a factory-fitted USB interface. The Control Master software allows you to control and monitor the firing, and analyse, arrange, print out, and save the data. If you want this feature, make sure you order the USB interface in the on-line shop.


Depending on the kiln, the 12-key programmer has a power-ratio feature: you can adjust the heat balance between the top and sides in 10% steps and control the heat distribution over larger pieces.

Kilns which only heat from the top, as opposed to the top and sides, don't have the power-ratio feature. However, the initial cost-saving has to be offset against fewer firing options.


With larger kilns, serious glass artists are always concerned about firebrick dust from the lid falling onto their work, so you could upgrade the standard firebrick lid to a factory-fitted ceramic-fibre lid with the elements threaded through pinless grooves in the fibre: or, as a luxury upgrade, with the elements completely embedded in the fibre.


Most kilns come with an electro-mechanical long-life nickel-chromium K-type thermocouple. However, if extra long-life and reliability are vital, you can upgrade to a mercury relay which has a lifetime of several million on-off cycles. The relay can switch 30A, so if you have a kiln that needs 50A, you'll need two relays.

If extra long-life and reliability are vital, especially at temperatures above 1100°C, you can upgrade to a long-life S-type platinum-rhodium thermocouple.


Some front-opening kilns are just too large and too heavy for a regular worktop, so Paragon makes a strong steel table, 768mm x 768mm x 718mm high, with two shelves for your accessories. The luxury version, with castors, is 63mm taller. If you decide to buy on old wood table, the rigidity of the legs is vital otherwise it will collapse like a parallelogram.


Some bronze and copper clays, and some metals, need to be fired in activated charcoal granules in a stainless steel container. The SC2 and SC3, the Caldera-A, and the Xpress E9A and E10A can hold a one-litre container: most other kilns can hold a three-litre but check the internal size before you buy the container. It's important that the container doesn't touch the thermocouple.

Particulates represent a health risk if they're breathed in, so wear a HEPA mask when cleaning out your kiln, mixing kiln wash, and working with charcoals, ceramic-fibre blocks, cloths, and papers. And, ideally, use protective glasses.

If you want to touch anything hot or move your kiln before it's cooled off, it's important to wear heat-resistant gloves. And, if you want to look into a red-hot kiln, wear glare-resistant glasses which protect your eyes from IR and UV.


Paragon kilns, made in the US, have been re-engineered and comprehensively tested for the UK, the EU, and most other countries. They're CE Marked and comply with EU safety standards. They're guaranteed for a year, and Paragon has an international, informed, and supportive user-base, and spares and repair centres.

The UK-EU digital programmer shows degrees Celsius, not degrees Fahrenheit as in the US. If you need to convert, this is how to do it. However, if you want to work in Fahrenheit, you can make a simple change to the programmer.


For help, or in the unlikely event of a fault, you can mail or call an engineer in the UK. However, home checks, adjustments, and repairs are quick and easy, needing little more than a PosiDriv screwdriver, and you can watch on-line videos. Alternatively, we can repair the kiln in our workshop at Cherry Heaven.

As with a lot of heavy consumer products made in the US but sold elsewhere, Paragon's guarantee covers replacement parts, not a return to the distributor or factory, and not any labour costs. However, as an example, replacing a programmer takes just a few minutes.

AN ELECTRIC KILN VENT
Orton-Paragon VentMaster: Unassembled. Vent Outlet. Auxilliary Power Socket.

The Orton-Paragon Vent Master Kiln Vent.

Refreshing the air in a kiln minimises surface blemishes when firing clays, ensures brighter colours when firing glasses, and prevents colour contamination when firing different glazes.

A factory-fitted Paragon-Orton Vent Master removes airborn pollutants straight away and redirects them to the outside through a flexi-pipe. The kilns can be factory-readied, so the vent just needs on-site assembly.

The vent motor isn't so powerful that the heat-up time and maximum temperature are reduced, but the cooling time is, depending on the size of the kiln.


The UK-EU vent motor is rated at 230V-240V 132W, so it can use a regular mains socket. The suction cup, in the second photo, and pipe are attached to the kiln but the motor can be remote: it doesn't get hot and the fan is easy to clean.

There's always a small gap, for expansion, around any kiln door or lid, so enough new air can be drawn in to replace the old air being drawn out. However, peepholes act as straight-through cold-air inlets: so you might not want them or block them with some ceramic cloth?

The vent can be turned on and off manually. Alternatively, if the kiln has a Sentry or a Sentinel programmer, the vent can be plugged into the kiln's auxilliary power outlet and controlled by the programmer. The power outlet, in the third photo, has to be fitted during manufacture, so decide before you order.


As with Paragon kilns, Orton Vent Masters can be re-engineered for any electrical system. They conform to the demanding 1992 Uniform Mechanical Code and the UL standard, and are CE Marked for the EU. They have a two year limited warranty.

A GAS INLET FLOW METER
Paragon Gas Inlet Flow Meter.

The Paragon Gas Inlet Flow Meter.

During heat treating, oxygen forms a scale on the surface of knife blades, metals, and tools. To minimise this, the parts can either be wrapped in heat-treating foil or an inert gas can be injected into the furnace to displace the oxygen.

Most professional knife makers use gas injection for precise control and to save time. If you have a Sentry or a Sentinel Touch Screen programmer, a solenoid kit can automatically turn the gas on or off for each segment of the firing: just programme the controller to turn on the gas at the temperature where scale begins to form on the steel.


In addition to the flow meter, you'll also need a regulator to reduce the pressure from the gas tank. This is usually bought with the gas tank: it's not part of this Paragon option. The gas pressure to the flow meter should be less than 20 pounds per square inch.

Furnaces aren't air tight and gas will leak out through the firebricks and metal seams, so you need a steady flow of gas. Gas at room temperature will expand to over twenty times its volume when injected into a firing chamber at 550°C, so a low setting on the flow meter is adequate to prevent most scaling.


Depending on how you work, gas injection might reduce the life of the heating elements slightly. However, they're easy and inexpensive to replace. If your business depends on continual kiln time, buying a spare set of elements would be sensible.

Argon gas is popular for heat treating because it's inexpensive. But, it's heavier than air and breathing it in won't keep you alive. so your workshop must be well ventilated.

A USB INTERFACE WITH WINDOWS SOFTWARE
Paragon USB Interface.

The Paragon USB Interface With Windows Software.

A factory-fitted USB interface provides a USB socket on the kiln that connects a Sentry or Sentinel programmer to a Windows computer. You can monitor the firing sequences, save them, and print out the results, making it easier to keep a record of firings: successful and unsuccessful. If you prefer, you can have an RS232 interface.


The Universal Serial Bus, USB, is a simple plug-and-play digital connection between a computer and most of it's peripherals, designed to replace all the old plugs, sockets, cables, and expansion interfaces. Up to 127 fast-access devices can be set up automatically and hot-swapped without turning the computer off.

Universal means it's an internationally agreed standard. A bus is the computer's two-way connection which carries data between the processor, the drive, the memory, and the peripherals. Serial means that data is sent one bit after another, as a data stream.
As an analogy, a road bus carries passengers between work, home, and the shops. And a tee-vee serial shows the episodes one after another, in the right sequence.

FIRING CHARACTERISTICS

How Electric Kilns Work.

Generally, as soon as a programmable kiln starts its firing sequence, it begins to heat up at a rate set by the programmer. It can't heat up quicker than it would do with the elements full on all the time.

The thermocouple tells the programmer the current internal temperature and, depending on the sequence you've chosen, the programmer turns the elements on or off to control the sequence segments: the heating rate, the target temperature, the hold time, and the cooling rate. It can't cool down quicker than it would do with the kiln turned off. When the sequence is complete, the kiln beeps, and the sequence stops.


For safety, the programmer doesn't switch the full mains voltage. Instead it drives a relay, an electro-mechanical switch. The programmer uses a low voltage to activate the switch which turns the high-voltage high-current elements on or off.


When the target temperature is reached, the programmer switches the elements off. However, residual heat in the firing chamber allows the internal temperature to overshoot the target temperature briefly before starting to fall back.

This overshoot is more evident at low temperatures than at high temperatures, and in small kilns rather than large kilns. For example: 300°C will probably overshoot to 350°C whereas 800°C will probably only overshoot to 805°C before starting to fall back.

However, our Sentry Xpress programmers have a software modification that slows down the heating just before the target temperature, reducing any overshoot and improving the accuracy.

During the hold-time, with the elements still off, the temperature starts to fall. When the programmer switches the elements back on, the firing chamber will initially absorb some of the new heat before the temperature recovers. The continual switching of the elements on and off causes the internal temperature to oscillate either side of the target temperature.

This is similar to central heating. If you set it for 21°C, it probably oscillates, quite slowly, around 20°C to 22°C: and you won't notice. The accuracy will depend on where the thermostat is sited, how quickly it responds, how accurate it is, how long it takes for the radiators to heat up, and if you have doors and windows open. The temperature will probably be different in each room.

So, regardless of the thermocouple temperature, the actual temperature of your work will be slightly different, depending on its position on the kiln shelf, the vertical spacing of any stacked shelves, and its nearness to the elements, a lid, a door, a bead door, or a window. Learn to take this into account if you're working with temperature-critical materials or processes.


Remember that glass needs radiant heat and will fuse, sag, or slump better on one shelf at the bottom than between closely stacked shelves.


Kiln doors and lids are not meant to be a perfect fit otherwise, at high temperatures, there'd be no room for expansion and movement, and the door could stick and the ceramic-fibre or firebricks could crack.

All kilns smell a bit, and even produce whisps of smoke, during the first firings, just like a toaster or a fan heater. If you're worried about fumes, open a window.

Eventually, with normal use, kilns discolour slightly, inside and outside, and some firebricks might develop hairline cracks. Your kiln is a versatile, robust, red-hot tool: not an ornament.

KEEPING A KILN LOG

Keeping A Kiln Log.

Using your kiln successfully needs critical research and frequent tests, especially as things that work for your friends and teachers might not work in the same way for you. It's also very important to learn how to creatively use unexpected effects. So, keep a firing log:


Buy a durable notebook. Use a new page for every firing, and draw diagrams of the shelves, their vertical spacing, and the position of your work on the shelves. Along with your work, put a few scraps at different places on the shelves to learn how things change. Describe the material, the shape of your work, the firing cycle, and the end result. Add a few photos and sketches, and mark the page corners with coloured dots or symbols as a quick reminder of your success rating.

A kiln log is vital if you're experimenting with temperature-sensitive materials or working with metals, coloured dichroic glasses, enamels, glazes, or china paints, and a skilled artist will use the kiln log to advantage to re-create effects. It'll be particularly useful if you have to repeat a commission, or you have a long holiday before returning to your studio.


Some Paragon kilns have a Sentry 12-key or a Sentinel Touch Screen programmer which can be connected to your computer through a factory-fitted USB interface. The Control Master software allows you to control and monitor the firing, and analyse, arrange, save, and print out the data. If you want this feature, make sure you order the USB interface in the on-line shop.

A BRIEF INTRODUCTION TO CLAYS
Natural Clay.

What Is Clay?

Clays are formed naturally over millions of years as rocks break up into minute particles. They consist of hydrous aluminium silicates and other compounds such as feldspar, iron oxides, mica, and quartz. Clays are collectively referred to as ceramics.

Clays are often divided into three main categories: earthenware, porcelain, and stoneware. Generally, they needs to be fired for several hours, although the exact chemical composition affects the firing temperatures and times, and the clays' colour, porosity, shrinkage, and strength.

EARTHENWARE, PORCELAIN, AND STONEWARE
Earthenware Flower Pot.

What Are Earthenware, Porcelain, And Stoneware?

Earthenware is normally beige, red, or white. It has the lowest firing temperature of the three, usually about 1150°C. It's slightly porous, and stains and chips easily, so it's often glazed to protect the surface. Its porosity means it's good for making planters and oven steamers, but not good for jugs or vases.

Porcelain is composed of kaolin, or china clay. Kaolin doesn't melt until 1800°C, so other compounds are usually added so it can be fired between 1250°C and 1400°C. For example, bone china is made by adding bone ash to the clay. It's known for its whiteness, hardness, smoothness, durability, and translucency. When tapped, it makes a distinctive ping: or ming.

Stoneware is normally beige, grey, or red-brown. It's usually fired between 1150°C and 1300°C. It's hard, durable, and resists thermal shock. Glazes bond well, so it can be made waterproof.

BISQUE
Bisque.

What Is Bisque?

Bisque is clay which has been fired once, without a glaze, to a temperature just before vitrification. Firing changes the clay into ceramic material, without fully fusing it. A second, slower, firing melts the glaze and fuses it to the clay body.

BONE CHINA
Royal Victoria Bone China Cup And Saucer. Wedgewood White Dinner Set. Rose Bouquet Dessert Plates. Royal Albert Bone China Tea Set.

What Is Bone China?

Bone china is a type of porcelain composed of bone ash, feldspathic material, and kaolin. It's the strongest of the porcelain or china ceramics, having very high mechanical and physical strength and chip resistance, and is known for its high levels of whiteness and translucency. Its high strength allows it to be produced in thinner cross-sections than other types of porcelain.

From its initial development and up to the latter part of the 20th century, bone china was almost exclusively English, with production being effectively localised in Stoke-on-Trent. Most major English firms made or still make it, including Fortnum & Mason, Mintons, Coalport, Spode, Royal Crown Derby, Royal Doulton, Wedgwood, and Worcester.

In the UK, references to china or porcelain can refer to bone china, and English Porcelain has been used as a term for it, both in the UK and around the world

POLYMER CLAY
Polymer Clay Flowers By Olga Zhukova. Polymer Clay Key Rings. Polymer Clay Beads By LiasonWithAlison. Polymer Clay Necklace By Facet Jewellery.

What Is Polymer Clay?

Polymer clay is a man-made material: tiny particles of polyvinyl chloride mixed with plasticisers and pigments. When it's baked, at around 125°C, the particles fuse and the clay hardens.

RAKU
Raku By Lori Duncan. Raku By Brian Seckinger. Raku By Greenwich Community College. Raku By Soley Ceramics.

What Is Raku?

Raku was originally a Japanese technique, but it's now become an internationally popular way to make decorative ware, with each piece having a unique blend of colours.

A bisque piece is fired to about 950°C, then glazed. It's removed from the kiln when red-hot, and put straight into a container of combustible material.

The flames, reducing atmosphere, and mix of chemicals stain the clay. When the piece is removed and quenched in cold water, interesting colours and shades remain: often unpredictable.

A BRIEF INTRODUCTION TO GLASS
Obsidian. Fish. Curved Glass by Infabbrica. Lauscha By Carrie Fertig.

What Is Glass?

The main component of glass is silicon dioxide, often called silica: found naturally and plentifully as sand. When it melts, at around 1700°C, it's like syrup on a cold day. When it cools, it forms a rigid brittle glass called quartz glass.

To lower the melting point, and reduce the cost of melting, chemicals are added: typically sodium carbonate and calcium oxide. Other chemicals, and different heating and cooling processes, produce a range of colours and mechanical properties.

Chemically, glass is defined as an amorphous solid but, as it's heated, it becomes softer allowing it to be blown, cast, coated, decorated, engraved, heat-treated, moulded, poured, pressed, sagged, and slumped.

A form of glass occurs naturally within the mouth of a volcano when the intense heat of an eruption melts sand to form Obsidian, a hard black-to-brown glassy type of stone, shown in the photo. Although it was used decoratively, when it fractures it has very sharp edges, many times sharper than a steel knife-edge, so was also used for tools and weapons, and the pitiful rituals of circumcision and female genital mutilation.

ANNEALING
Annealed Beads Made Into A Necklace.

What Is Annealing?

During annealing, fabrication stresses are relieved as the molecules cool and arrange themselves into a regular stable matrix. Successful annealing is the key to creating glasswork that will remain attractive and durable. It's quite a long process, so a kiln with an automatic comprehensive programmer is essential.

FREE BEAD ANNEALING GUIDE

Bead Annealing Guide.

You can download, and print, a Bead Annealing Guide. Paragon created it in 2013 so, although it might have been updated, it's only a guide, not a contemporary definitive document. Click here. It's a pdf file, but your device should already have a pdf viewer.

DICHROIC GLASS
Dichroic Glass.

What Are Dichroic Glasses.

Dichroic glass has two different colours: a transmitted colour and a reflective colour, both of which change depending on the angle of view. For example blue-red will be blue in transmission and red in reflection.

During manufacture, quartz and metal oxides are vapourised onto the surface of the glass using a vacuum deposition process, forming a multi-layer crystal structure.

ENAMELLING
Enamelled Jewellery.

What Is Enamelling?

Enamelling involves applying a glass paste to metal and then heating it to fuse it to the surface. The finish of the enamel can be translucent or opaque depending on the temperature used to melt the glass. Higher temperatures result in a more transparent and durable enamel whilst lower temperatures give a more opaque and fragile surface. Dyes and pigments can be included to produce any colour.

Paragon make a kiln designed for this: the SC2, although other kilns are fine. So click the sc2-sc3 link under the menu bar near the top of the page. The SC-2W and SC-3W doors include a 50mm x 50mm heat-resistant glass viewing-window in the centre of the door, allowing you to take a quick peep at china paints, enamels, glass, and glazes to check on their progress

FIRE POLISHING
Fire Polished Glass.

What Is Fire Polishing?

To fire polish glass, return the items to the kiln and melt them just enough to give a smooth polished appearance. It needs a temperature of around 700°C, and is often used to round the edges of glass after fusing.

Fire polishing already-slumped items is more difficult because the polishing temperature is close to the slumping temperature and it can distort the appearance of the piece. So it generally works best for flat items, rather than slumped ones. It has the slight limitation that the part of the item that touches the kiln shelf won't polish.

FUSING, SAGGING, AND SLUMPING
Fused Glass.

What Is Glass Fusing?

If two or more pieces of glass in contact are heated, they begin to soften and fuse together. With careful heating and cooling, the separate pieces of glass become one.

If glass is put on a mould and heated, it begins to soften and collapse, or sag, onto the mould: a common technique for making bowls and plates.

Sagging and slumping are often thought of as being the same. Correctly: during sagging, heated glass, supported at its edges, sags down in the middle to conform to a mould; during slumping, heated glass, supported at its middle, slumps down at its edges to conform to a mould.

LAMPWORK AND BEADS
Beads.

What Is Lampwork?

Lamp-working is the traditional name for glasswork that uses a flame to melt glass rods and tubes. As the glass softens, it's shaped by turning and using tools.

Early lampworkers used an oil-lamp, and blew air into the flame through a pipe. Later, propane, natural gas, or butane torches replaced the lamp, although kilns are now increasingly popular, particularly for annealing.

Beads are usually made on steel rods, or mandrels. When the beads are finished, the rods are removed leaving holes for threading the beads. Cold working techniques can be used, such as etching, faceting, polishing, and sandblasting.

LOST-WAX BURNOUT
Paragon W13 Lost Wax Casting Kiln With A Sentry Programmer.

What Is Lost Wax Casting?

Lost-wax burnout starts with making a wax shape and then making a mould of the shape. When the mould is heated in a kiln, the wax melts out through channels, usually over a burnout grate and into a tray. The shape is then cast in glass or metal from the mould.

It's important to prevent wax or carbon sticking to the elements, so burnout kilns have a top vent to release the fumes. Carbon build-up inside a kiln conducts electricity and can cause the elements to short circuit.

Paragon make kilns designed for this: the W series. So click the w-lost-wax-burnout link under the menu bar near the top of the page. They all have top vents and optional wax trays.

SLUMPING BOTTLES
Slumped Bottle.

What Is Glass Slumping?

This a simple technique but it requires good ideas. A bottle, such as those used for wine, beer, cola, or champagne, is softened in a kiln so that it begins to flatten out or conforms to a mould. There are too many moulds to stock here but there are lots available on line. Or make your own from clay.

The bottles need to be clean and dry, with all paper labels and tops removed. Put them in your kiln on a shelf, either with shelf paper or kiln wash to prevent the glass sticking to the shelf.

Paragon makes a kiln designed for this: the Trio. So click the trio link under the menu bar near the top of the page. It's wide enough for most bottles but can still use a regular socket.

PÂTE DE VERRE
Pâte De Verre.

What Is Pâte De Verre?

Pâte de verre involves making a glass paste, applying it to a mould, firing it, and removing the piece from the mould. The glass paste is usually made from glass powder, a binder such as gum arabic, distilled water, and colouring agents or enamels. It allows precise placing of colours in the mould, whereas other techniques often result in the glass straying from its intended position.

I think, currently, Daum is the only large commercial crystal manufacturer using the pâte de verre process for art glass and crystal sculptures.

STAINED GLASS
Stained Glass.

What Is Stained Glass?

Stained glass is glass that has been coloured by adding metallic salts during its manufacture. The coloured glass is crafted into stained glass windows in which small pieces of glass are arranged to form patterns or pictures, traditionally held together by strips of lead and supported by a rigid frame. Painted details and yellow stain are often used to enhance the design.

The term stained glass is also applied to windows in which the colours have been painted onto the glass and then fused to the glass in a kiln.

It requires artistic skill to conceive an appropriate and workable design, and engineering skills to assemble the piece. A window must fit snugly into the space for which it is made, must resist wind and rain, and also, especially in the larger windows, must support its own weight. Many large windows have withstood the test of time and remained substantially intact since the Late Middle Ages.

TACK FUSING
Tack Fused Glass.

What Is Tack Fusing?

Tack fusing is the joining together of glass, with as little change to the shape of the pieces as possible. Tack fusing may be used either decoratively, or to assemble a large piece of glass from laminations.

Where tack fusing is used to apply small decorative details to a larger piece, you might want to partially melt the small pieces so that they change shape, usually becoming more spherical under the influence of surface tension, but without changing the shape of the carrier piece. This can be done by using an increased temperature, but only briefly. The carrier piece has a larger thermal mass, so heats up more slowly than the small decorations.

VITRIGRAPH WORK
Glass Stringers.

What Is Vitrigraph?

The vitrigraph process usually uses a kiln to make glass stringers. The bottom of the kiln is removed and set aside. The kiln body is put on a thick ceramic square with a central hole.

A crucible of glass is put inside, and the whole combination lifted well away from the floor to allow moulten glass to fall through a hole in the crucible and form long stringers. Ceramic squares are in the on-line shop.

Paragon make a kiln designed for this: the Caldera. So click the caldera link under the menu bar near the top of the page. The bottom is a separate part and can be unclipped.

WARM GLASS

What Is Warm Glass?

The term warm glass refers to fusing, slumping, and other glass processes which take place at temperatures between about 600°C to 925°C. Although that doesn't sound warm, it is when you compare it to glassblower's working temperatures, which often exceed 1100°C. Warm glass is sometimes called kiln-formed glass.

PARAGON KILNS INTERNATIONAL DISTRIBUTOR
Paragon KM24T XL Double Barrel Knife-Making Furnace With A Sentry Controller.

Paragon Kilns, Furnaces, and Ovens For Annealing, Beads, Ceramics, Enamels, Glass, Jewellery, Knife Making, Lost Wax, Silver Clays, Heat Treating, Lampwork, Porcelain, And Vitrigraph.

is a Cherry Heaven internet resource. It's a top-tier international distributor for Texas-made Paragon kilns, furnaces, ovens, and accessories, and has been one of their top-selling partners from 2006 to : a pleasing outcome since the UK is only one third the area of Texas and one fortieth the area of the US.

As this is an on-line resource, there isn't a paper catalogue or a price list. However, you can mail or call a technician about kilns, power supplies, public area safety, a special project, business ideas, diagnostics, repairs, or reselling opportunities.


Art Clay UK. Cherry Heaven. Electric Kilns. Electric Tumblers. Euroversity. Kitiki. Learning English. Lucas Cameron. Mini Kiln. Oxford English. Oxford English Training. Paragon Kilns International. Paragon Kilns UK. Paragon Kilns DE. Paragon Kilns EU. Paragon Kilns US. Professor English. Prometheus Kilns. Paragon Kilns UK Accent Gold Accessories And Tools Art Clay Silver ClayParagon BlueBird Bead-Annealing Kilns Bronze Clay Paragon Caldera Ceramics Kilns Paragon Catalogue Ceramics Copper Clay Silver Clay Courses Photos Of Dorset Paragon Dragon Ceramics And Glass Kilns Frequently Asked Questions Paragon FireFly Ceramics  Kilns Paragon Fusion Glass Kilns Paragon F LampWorking Kilns Glass Clay Paragon GL Glass Kilns Kiln Help Paragon Home Artist Kilns Paragon HT Heat-Treating Kilns Image Transfer Solution Paragon Janus Ceramics Kilns Paragon KM Knife-Making Kilns Lost Wax Burnout And Casting Contact By Mail West Holme Map Metal Clay Veneer Paragon Pearl Glass Kilns Kiln Photos Paragon PMT Heat-Treating Kilns Programmers Paragon SC Jewellery Kilns Silver Etch Paragon Kilns Shop Paragon TNF Ceramics Kilns Paragon Trio Slumping KIln Tumblers And Polishers TV Programmes Paragon Vulcan Crucible And Glass Kilns Paragon W Jewellery Kilns Paragon Xpress Ceramics Kilns


UK To EU Plug Adapter.
Ceramic Block.
Ceramic Cloth.
EU Plug.
UK-EU Adapter.
Dry Powder Extinguisher.
Glare Resistant Glasses.
HEPA Mask.
heat-resistant Gloves.
Kitiki Cutters.
Kitiki Flush Cutters.
Kitiki Flat-Nose Pliers.
Kitiki Pointed-Nose Pliers.
Kitiki Bent-Nose Pliers.
Kitiki Round-Nose Pliers.
Protective Glasses.
Potter & Brumfield Relay.
Dorset, SW England.
UK 13A Plug.
The AX-4 Digital Controller.
MiniKiln Closed.
Prometheus Pro-7.
Large Rubber Drum 950gm Open
Bartlett-Paragon Touch Screen Digital Controller.
Paragon BlueBird Bead Annealing Kiln.
Lauscha by Carrie Fertig.
Activated Charcoal Granules.
Paragon Caldera Ceramics Kiln.
Paragon Caldera Bead Kiln.
Paragon Fusion CS14D Glass Kiln.
Paragon Fusion CS14SB Glass And Bead Kiln.
Paragon Caldera XL Ceramics Kiln.
Paragon F500 Lampwork Kiln.
Paragon FireFly Ceramics Kiln.
Paragon Fusion 7 Glass Kiln.
Paragon Fusion 8 Glass Kiln.
Paragon GL18ADTSD Glass Kiln.
Paragon HT-14D Heat Treating Furnace.
Paragon Janus 1613 Ceramics Kiln.
Paragon KM18D Knife Making Oven.
Paragon-Orton Vent Master: Unassembled.
Paragon-Orton Vent Master: Suction Cup.
Paragon Pearl 18 Glass Kiln.
Paragon PMT21 Heat Treating Kiln.
Paragon Door Peephole And Vent.
Stainless Steel Pans.
Paragon SC-2 Black Jewellery Kiln.
Paragon SC2 Jewellery Kiln.
Paragon SC2B Bead-Door Kiln.
Paragon SC2W Enamelling Kiln.
Paragon SC4 Glass Kiln.
Paragon SC2BW Jewellery And Bead Kiln.
Paragon SC2D Pro-3 Jewellery Kiln.
Paragon SC2 Shelf Kit.
Paragon SC-2 Jade Jewellery Kiln.
Paragon SC-2 Black Jewellery Kiln.
Orton-Paragon Sentry Xpress Programmer.
Orton-Paragon Sentry Programmer.
Bartlett-Paragon Sentinel Touch-Screen Controller.
Paragon SC-2 Pink Jewellery Kiln.
Paragon SC-2 Pro Black Jewellery Kiln.
Paragon SC-2 Turqoise Jewellery Kiln.
Paragon SC-2 Purple Jewellery Kiln.
Paragon SC-2 Navy Jewellery Kiln.
Paragon SC-2 Berry Jewellery Kiln.
Paragon ST-8 Kiln Table.
Paragon ST-8 Kiln Table With Casters.
Paragon TNF 1613 Ceramics Kiln.
Paragon GL24 Kiln Table.
Paragon Xpress 1613 Top Row Of Bricks.
Paragon W Lost-Wax Casting Kiln.
Paragon Lost-Wax Burnout Tray.
USB Plug.
Paragon Xpress E-12 Jewellery Kiln.
Paragon Xpress E-12B Bead Kiln.
Paragon Xpress E-14 Glass Kiln.
Paragon Xpress Q-11 Ceramics Kiln.